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Thesis Sven Jense DEF 8-3-2010

Circular Migrants: Development or Kleenex Class? How migrants themselves are structurally missing in policy design for African-European temporary labour migration Sven Jense Masters thesis Political Science First Supervisor: prof. dr. G.C.A. Junne Second Supervisor: dr. J.M.J. Doomernik Student number 0380245 University of Amsterdam February 2010 To my mind, development is about giving hope to ordinary people that their children will live in a society that has caught up with the rest of the w
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  Circular Migrants:Development or Kleenex Class?   How migrants themselves are structurally missing in policy design forAfrican-European temporary labour migrationSven JenseMasters thesis Political ScienceFirst Supervisor: prof. dr. G.C.A. JunneSecond Supervisor: dr. J.M.J. DoomernikStudent number 0380245University of AmsterdamFebruary 2010   3 To my mind, development is about giving hope to ordinary people that their children will live in a society that has caught up with the rest of the world. Take that hope away and the smart people will use their energies not to develop their society but to escape from it. –Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion 1   1 Collier 2007: 12   4 Table of Contents 1   Introduction........................................................................................................................................7   2   Migration and Development   –   moving to mobility as condition humaine  .........11   2.1   How mobility has suddenly entered the development debate and why this isa huge positive change..........................................................................11   2.1.1   Brief History of International Migration..................................................13   2.1.2   General features of international migration...........................................14   2.1.3   Terms and definitions.............................................................................18   2.1.4   Psychology of migration..........................................................................19   2.1.5   Legal aspects of migration – layers of justice.........................................20   2.2   What Development?..................................................................................24   2.2.1   Development as health and economic growth – basic facts....................24   2.2.2   From postcolonial development towards universal freedom...................29   3   Perceived Transitional Mobility Systems – theoretically including migrant’sagency..............................................................................................................................................35   3.1   Complex systems approach......................................................................36   3.1.1   Approaching knowledge and the value of subjective truth......................36   3.1.2   Agency, feedback and impossible causality............................................37   3.2   A selection of migration theory.................................................................40   3.2.1   A review of mainstream theories............................................................40   3.2.2   Defining international migration systems...............................................45   3.3   Humps and Transitions – concepts for describing systemic change...........46   3.4   Migration and Development - Towards a circular migration theory..........48   4   Circular Migration - Gastarbeit  Repeated?.....................................................................52   4.1   Circular migration in policy documents.....................................................53   4.2   Discussion of policy papers – omitted perspectives...................................55   4.3   Practice - cases and key lessons..............................................................56   4.3.1   The Canada-Mexican Seasonal Agricultural Workers.............................57   4.3.2   Braceros:  Mexican workers in the United States.....................................58   4.3.3   Gastarbeiter  in Germany.........................................................................59   4.3.4   The Spanish Contingente  system............................................................60   4.3.5   Circular Migration in North Africa...........................................................61   4.4   Analysis....................................................................................................65   4.4.1   What is circular migration?......................................................................65   4.4.2   Comparing cases....................................................................................66   4.5   Social downsides, denial of agency and Universal Human Rights...............68   4.6   Who could be the circular migrant............................................................71     5 5   Circular Migration for Development?.................................................................................74   5.1   Recent regulated Circular Migration initiatives.........................................74   5.2   Rephrasing the question and developing guidelines for programme design.....75   5.2.1   Attempt at Designing Circular Migration policy contributing toDevelopment..........................................................................................77   5.2.2   What’s the deal? A framework for circular migration programmes..........79   5.2.3   Test of framework on Dutch pilot programme........................................82   5.3   The interplay between migration on development....................................84   6   Conclusions......................................................................................................................................87   7   Appendix A – Terms and definitions..................................................................................91   8   Appendix B – Interview Transcripts (Dutch)..................................................................93   8.1   Djiby Diop – textile worker in Bamako, Mali..............................................93   8.2   Omar Parfait – construction engineer in Nouadhibou................................96   8.3   Korotou Diallo – cleaner in Paris...............................................................97   8.4   Mamadou Diallo – crop harvester in Almería, Spain..................................98   8.5   Mr. Ba – Koran teacher, looking for work in France...................................98   8.6   Abdoulaye Konate, directeur-régisseur CIGEM.........................................99   9   Appendix C – Dutch Pilot programme Assessment.................................................100   9.1.1   Fixed parameters...................................................................................100   9.1.2   Variable parameters..............................................................................100   9.1.3   Estimates...............................................................................................101   10   Bibliography.................................................................................................................................102  
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