THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAJJ ROUTE IN JORDAN An Archaeological and Historical Study with contributions by

THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAJJ ROUTE IN JORDAN An Archaeological and Historical Study with contributions by
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  THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAJJ ROUTE IN JORDANAn Archaeological and Historical Study  Andrew Petersen with contributions by Michael Diboll, Dennis Genequand, Tony Grey, St John Simpson and Mehmet Tütüncü OXBOW BOOKS Oxford and Oakville LEVANT SUPPLEMENTARY SERIESVOLUME 12   Published jointly by the Council for British Research in the Levant and  Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK © Council for British Research in the Levant, Oxbow Books and the authors, 2012ISBN 978-1-84217-502-6 Cover image: View of 18th century Ottoman fort at Mudawwara, southern Jordan. Photograph by the author. This book is available direct from: Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK (Phone: 01865-241249; Fax: 01865-794449) and   The David Brown Book CompanyPO Box 511, Oakville, CT 06779, USA(Phone: 860-945-9329; Fax: 860-945-9468) or from our website www.oxbowbooks.comA CIP record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataPetersen, Andrew.The medieval and Ottoman hajj route in Jordan : an archaeological and historical study / Andrew Petersen ; with contributions by Michael Diboll ... [et al.]. p. cm. -- (Levant supplementary series ; v. 12) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84217-502-6  1. Muslim pilgrims and pilgrimages--Jordan--History. 2. Jordan--Antiquities. 3. Fortication--Jordan--History. 4. Excavations (Archaeology)--Jordan. I. Council for British Research in the Levant. II. Title. DS153.3.P47 2012 933’.5--dc23 2012012271  Printed and bound in Great Britain by Short Run Press, Exeter   This book is for Heather, Jamie and Rowan, who kept me going on this journey   List of maps  vii  List of gures  viii  List of plates  ix  List of tables  xxxi  Acknowledgements  xiv  Preface  xvPART I: INTRODUCTION1 Introduction 12 Principal Written Sources 43 The Medieval Hajj Route through Syria and Jordan 94 EarlyOttomanArabiaandtheSyrianHajjRoute17Early Ottoman Arabia and the Syrian Hajj Route17175 The Ottoman Hajj Route: Motivation and Ideology 206 TravellingontheDarbal-Hajj29Travelling on the Darb al-Hajj2929 7 Ottoman Fortication in Palestine and Transjordan 38 8 TheHajjRouteinSyria51The Hajj Route in Syria 5151PART II: THE FORTS9 Catalogue of Hajj Forts in Jordan 5710 Catalogue of Forts in Saudi Arabia 130PART III: THE ARCHAEOLOGY – EXCAVATION, FINDS AND INSCRIPTIONS11 Arabic and Turkish Inscriptions on the Darb al-Hajj 155   Mehmet Tütüncü and Andrew Petersen withacontributionbyGotfriedHagenwith a contribution by Gotfried Hagen  12 ExcavationsatQal‘at‘Unaiza164Excavations at Qal‘at ‘Unaiza 16413 Ceramics from at Qal‘at ‘Unaiza and other Hajj Forts in Jordan174174  Tony Grey and Andrew Petersen  14 Finds from Qal‘at ‘Unaiza and other Ottoman Forts on the Darb al-Hajj190190  St John Simpson   Contents
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