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Social And Political Aspects Of Global Warming

The environment can be understood conceptually as a biologic, physical, social and economic surrounding where living beings lives and interact with everything around them. The relations between environment and individuals which is a part of the
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  Select any environmental crisis and explain its political significance. Social And Political Aspects Of Global Warming The environment can be understood conceptually as a biologic, physical, social and economic surrounding where living beings lives and interact with everything around them. The relations between environment and individuals which is a part of the environment is closely associated with our social and economic lifestyle. Throughout history, changing socio-economic structures have also changed the environment. The Industrial Revolution that ground men into masses with its satai ill hae realized the biggest transformation.  1  The revolution destroyed old social tissue as well as occurred the new ways of integration of man and nature. Even the enclosures 2  in England have not had a major impact on the environment, despite the impact of settlement and employment. But after that, wastes which vomited forth from satanic mill started demolishing the rural areas. Depending on the development of the industry, the market economy, which rapidly affected the whole world,  under the name of labor, nature under the name of land, world made available for sale; the use of labor power could be universally bought and sold at a price called wages, and the use of land could be negotiated for a price alled ret. Labor, life and land are an inseparable whole. Therefore, it is impossible to think of living a human being without nature ut the oodity fiction disregarded the fact that leaving the fate of soil and people to the market would be tantamount to aihilatig the. 3  We can see this transformation as the starting point of the environmental crises that we face today on a territorial or global scale. We can exemplify numerous global environmental crises such as global warming, thinning of the ozone layer, acid rain, deforestation and desertification, radioactive pollution, climate changes, wetland depletion, and biodiversity loss. But the most recent and immediate environmental crisis that needs to be solved today is global warming and climate change in parallel with these developments . The most basic reason for global warming is air pollution. The occurring of greenhouse gas emissions increases the average temperature every year by creating a greenhouse effect in the world atmosphere. When the aerage teperature of the earth is  ° C for the last , years, this situatio has egu to hage since the last 20-25 years. This change has arisen from human activities, which are much more influential than natural ones. 4  The last 30 years of our planet is the warmest term of 1400 years. “urfae teperature has ireased y . ° C sie 1880. 5  Also, the hottest 10 years are between 1  Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001), pp. 35-44 2  Barrington Moore Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Aylesbury: Penguin University Books, 1974), p. 9 3  Polanyi, p. 137 4   ‘uşe Keleş, “oruda Çere: Çere soruları e Çere Politikası İzir: Yakı Kitapei, , p.  5  IPCC, Climate Change 2013: Physical Science Basis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 37  1998 and 2013. 6  Besides, global sea level is 20 cm higher than in 1880 and keep rising 3 mm per year. 7  According to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) data, the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere, which is less than 280 ppm in the pre-industrial period, is now measured as 400 ppm (parts per million). In the same way, the density of methane and nitrous oxide gases in the atmosphere has never been so high. Undoubtedly, the industrial revolution caused greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, developed countries which were industrialized in the early period responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. In between 1850 and 2000, according to the statistics, the greenhouse gas emissions have been created by at the rate of 30% USA, 27% of the EU countries, 8,2% of Russia and 7,2% of China. 8   According to the liberal economic assumptions like trickle-down theory, economic growth (increasing the profitability and wealth of capital accumulation) will increase the welfare level of the poor persons. Yet, increase in economic activities leads to carbon emissions inevitably. In this theory, the reason of emissions as an attempt to increase welfare for the elimination of poverty is enucleated. Thus, global warming and climate change are banalized to a normal thing. Whereas, the syste doest sort out poverty but also effects of global warming mostly affect poor people. Air pollution is a major burden on world health. In many places, including cities but also rural areas, exposure to air pollution is the main environmental threat to health, responsible for 6.5 million deaths a year -about one every 5 seconds, particularly for low and middle-income countries and vulnerable segments of the population such as children and the elderly. 9  If we check the statistics, the annual CO2 emissions per capita in the countries with the lowest income group is 0.3 tons, while in the countries with the high-income group this amount is 11.6.  10  According to another statistic, the richest 11% of the world population is responsible for half of the carbon emissions. 11  If we will consider the justification of this data, we can investigate consumption habits of wealth holders. As long as their wealth keep increasing, they live in bigger houses and they consume more natural resources to warm these houses during winter and to cool down in the summertime. They take more than they can eat and throw away the rest of them to trash. Briefly, they consume much more than they need. The richest 20% of the population consumes 90% of goods and services while the poorest 20% consume only 1%. 12  In spite of all these things, providing electricity for 1.3 billion people who live without electricity will bring additional emissions of only 1% of total emissions. 13  Every year, millions of people having difficulties in accessing to food because of various reasons depend on climate-changing. The population of mosquitoes grows due to temperature increase at cold and high places where they can't access normally and they cause hundreds of thousands of people to die because of malaria every year. Hundreds of thousands of people have lost their lives in extreme weather events such as floods, drought, extreme cold, hurricanes and typhoons. In between 1993 and 2012, Honduras, Myanmar, Haiti, Nicaragua, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Philippines, Dominican Republic, 6  National Climatic Data Center (USA), State of the Climate: Global Climate Report - Annual 2017 (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201713) [February 2018] 7  World Meteorological Organization, The Global Change 2001-2010: Summary Report (Genova, 2013), p. 13 8   Çere e Şehirilik Bakalığı, Çeresel Göstergeler  Akara, , p.  9  The World Bank, World Development Indicators 2017 (http://hdl.handle.net/10986/26447), pp. 59-60 [February 2018] 10  The World Bank, World Development Indicators 2014 (http://hdl.handle.net/10986/18237), p. 45 [February 2018] 11   Doğa e Ket Hakları İçi “iyasal “tratejiler, ed. By Aykut Çoa ad Fezi Özlüer İstaul: Ekoloji Kolektifi Dereği, p.    12  Zygmunt Bauman, Does the Richness of the Few Benefit Us All? (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2013), p. 8 13   Aykut Çoa ad Fezi Özlüer , p.31  Mongolia, Thailand and Guatemala, which we consider as the poorest countries in the world, take the top 10 most affected countries from these weather events. Even in developed countries, poor people are more affected by extreme weather events than the rich people. In conclusion, the people which is less responsible for climate change are the ones most affected by climate change. We denominate it as  climate injustice  . As we can see in our examples, social injustice leads to climate injustice and climate injustice deepens social injustice. As you can see, ot usig reeale ad sustaiale soures of eergy like the su, ist the primary reason for the environmental problems which we are struggling right now. Even though the share of renewable energy in energy production has increased, climate injustice will not come to an end. Although Germany is one of the countries that use solar energy the most in the world, the automobile companies in the country have put pressure on the EU for years and have delayed regulations on emission values of automobiles that will be driven to the market. In summary, the main cause of global climate change underlies in the form of production based on the liberal capitalist market economy. If e idetify the politis as a soial atiity hose ojet is to proide o an overall scale the oditios eessary for aiteae ad deelopet of a partiular ode of produtio 14  (briefly, everything about the production process except itself of production), we can say environmental problems are also totally political. Climate change which is associated with the environmental disasters is one of the biggest political and economic crises in today's world. The solution of a political problem must seek in the political field. We can fight against the climate change only this way. Establishing awareness about climate change is important for societies to participate in political processes and to influence government policies. Thus, we can develop new ways to fight in the political field against global warming and the climate injustice that it reveals. In the world where production and consumption are increasing day by day, firstly we need to change the system, not the climate. Global warming has been symbolized as a freak and humanity is sentenced to fight with shadows. Instead of fighting with the shadows, we have to be more realistic and interrogate the reasons for the environmental crises in a political context and we have to seek a solution to global warming in a political field. Mehmet Ayvaz Graduated from Ankara University Faculty of Political Science, Political Science and Public Administration bachelor degree e-mail: mayvaz.sbf@gmail.com 14   Ce Eroğul, A Essay O The Nature Of The “tate, Akara: Uiersity of Akara Faulty of Politial “iee Publications, 1981), p. 28    Bibliography Bauman, Zygmunt, Does the Richness of the Few Benefit Us All? (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2013) Çere e Şehirilik Bakalığı, Çeresel Göstergeler  Akara,  Çoa, Aykut, ed., Doğa e Ket Hakları İçi “iyasal Stratejiler İstaul: Ekoloji Kolektifi Dereği   Eroğul,  Cem, An Essay On The Nature Of The State, (Ankara: University of Ankara Faculty of Political Science Publications, 1981) IPCC, Climate Change 2013: Physical Science Basis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) Keleş, ‘uşe,  “oruda Çere: Çere soruları e Çere Politikası İzir: Yakı Kitapei,   Moore, Barrington, Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Aylesbury: Penguin University Books, 1974) National Climatic Data Center (USA), State of the Climate: Global Climate Report - Annual 2017 (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201713) Polanyi, Karl, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001) The World Bank, World Development Indicators 2014 (http://hdl.handle.net/10986/18237) The World Bank, World Development Indicators 2017 (http://hdl.handle.net/10986/26447) World Meteorological Organization, The Global Change 2001-2010: Summary Report (Genova, 2013)
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