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Abstract - Today, EPON is recognized as one of the best candidates for future next generation (NG) access network technologies, as a result of its cost-effectiveness in fiber optic network architecture and ethernet technology. The survivability and
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   - 1 - SECURITY IN SURVIVABLE EPON SURVIVABLE OPTICAL NETWORKS PROJECT REPORT by BALOGUN ADEBUSOLA This project report is submitted to Professor Houssein Mouftah in  partial fulfillment of the requirements for ELG 5383A course     APRIL 25, 2018 Department of Systems & Computer Engineering Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario     - 2 -  Abstract - Today, EPON is recognized as one of the best candidates for future next generation (NG) access network technologies, as a result of its cost-effectiveness in fiber optic network  architecture and ethernet technology. The survivability and security mechanisms of the  Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) are extensively discussed in this research. Security  techniques in EPON combat attacks by improving MAC protocols and encryption methods. This paper entails illustrations of different security attacks and threats, as well as prevention  techniques for eavesdropping and other potential issues faced in EPON. Keywords  –   PON, EPON, GEPON, TDM-PON, survivability, security, ethernet, optic fiber. 1.   INTRODUCTION   Passive Optical Technology is driven by the demand for a low-cost transport system to end users, whereby there is low latency, bandwidth elasticity and no interference between premises and head-end in the optical access network, also identified as the Last mile network. The survivability and security of a network are two essential factors in high speed telecommunication networks. This therefore amounts to increase in the demand for enormous  bandwidth by bandwidth-hungry applications, thereby leading to rapid evolution of broadband access technologies such as 3G, Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Metro Wi-Fi. In the fiber-optic access network, EPON is commonly used because of its ability to support excessive bandwidth, together with its interoperability with other current Ethernet-based networks. EPON addresses the drawback of point to point technologies through the implementation of a point to multipoint structure in the place of the point to point topology, by eradicating active components like repeaters and amplifiers from the outside, and also minimizing the quantity of lasers required at the central office (CO). The implementation of EPON can be done using a two-wavelength or three-wavelength architecture. SECURITY IN SURVIVABLE EPON Balogun Adebusola Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University  busolabalogun@cmail.carleton.ca   - 3 - This section provides a broad survey and constructive evaluation of the evolution of Optical Ethernet, the building blocks of EPON and definitions of other related technologies. 1.1.   OPTICAL ETHERNET   The integration of Ethernet’s simplicity and flexibility w ith speed and reliability from Optical Communications generates Optical Ethernet. In data communications, these features play a key role in ensuring efficient transfer of information from source to destination, to prevent huge data loss. Optical Ethernet is an emerging technology that offers extremely high-speed data traffic, data storage resources and improved video and voice applications. Failures like node or link failure are associated with Optical Ethernet, caused by software/hardware glitch and cable cuts respectively. The optical ethernet world is now evolving in the provision of survivability to the network, whereby both protection and restoration is performed remotely, to achieve minimized latency in network recovery in the case of failure and overall system reliability. The three major building blocks of Optical Ethernet comprises of Ethernet over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed Networks (DWDM), Ethernet over Fiber and Ethernet over Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) [12]. In Ethernet over Fiber, mesh and point-to-point (P2P) topology is deployed for data traffic while mesh, ring and P2P topology are deployed in Ethernet over DWDM. Ethernet over RPR uses ring topology and far below 50ms failover is obtained. Some of the properties of Optical Ethernet include; i.   Spanning Tree Routing ii.   Class of Service (CoS) Priority Indication   - 4 - iii.   Virtual LAN (VLAN) Capability iv.   Aggregate Link Capability 1.2.   PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORK (PON) Provision of a solution to the problem of increased demand for newer applications and services by both small and residential businesses, through the use of both fiber and passive components like optical splitters, combiners and couplers, but not active components like repeaters or amplifiers illustrates the role of a Passive Optical Network (PON). A point-to-multipoint (P2MP) topology comprising of the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and multiple Optical Network Units (ONUs) is used in PON. The OLT is situated in the Central Office (CO) which is connected to the backhaul network. The ONUs are linked to the OLT by a single wavelength channel, and connected to the end users. Some of the major benefits of PON include; •   low cost, •   reliability, •   downstream video broadcasting. Data communication from an OLT to the ONUs is referred to as “Downstre am Traffic ”, which implies point to multipoint. On the other hand, data communication from an ONU to the OLT is known as “Upstream  Traffic ”, meaning multipoint to point  communication. Data is extracted by each ONU through their different MAC addresses in the downstream direction.   - 5 - 1.2.1.   PON STANDARDS The existing PON standards and their speed include; •   ATM PON (APON); 155Mbps - 622Mbps •   Broadband PON (BPON); 155Mbps - 1.25Gbps •    Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet based PON (EPON/GE-PON); 1.25Gbps •   Gigabit PON (GPON); 622Mbps - 2.5Gbps Fig.1. PON standards. [25] EPON/GE-PON (Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet based PON) is the main focus of this paper, of all the standards mentioned above, which utilizes 802.3 Ethernet frames and a speed of 1.25Gbps of  both upstream and downstream data transmission rates. APON BPON EPON/ GE-PON GPON
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