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Professor Philip Davis CRILS Centre for Research into Reading, Information and Linguistic Systems, University of L

Professor Philip Davis CRILS Centre for Research into Reading, Information and Linguistic Systems, University of Liverpool. READING BRAIN, HEART & MIND. J. H.Newman , U niversity Sermons .
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Professor Philip DavisCRILS Centre for Research into Reading, Information andLinguistic Systems, University of LiverpoolREADING BRAIN, HEART & MINDJ. H.Newman, University Sermons The mind ranges to and fro, and spreads out, and advances forward with a quickness which has become a proverb, and a subtlety and versatility which baffle investigation. It passes on from point to point, gaining one by some indication; another on a probability; then availing itself of an association; then falling back on some received law; next seizing on testimony; the committing itself to some popular impression, or some inward instinct, or some obscure memory; and thus it makes progress not unlike a clamberer on a steep cliff who, by quick eye, prompt hand, and firm foot, ascends how he knows not himself, by personal endowments and by practice, rather than by rule, leaving no track behind him, and unable to teach another. Newman, ‘Of Implicit and Explicit Reason’It is not too much to say that the stepping by which by which great geniuses scale the mountains of truth is as unsafe and precarious to men in general, as the ascent of a skilfulmontaineer up a literal crag. It is a way which they alone can take; and its justification lies in their success.Macbeth (5.3)1 And that which should accompany old age,2 As honour, love, obedience, troops of friends,3 I must not look to have, but in their stead4 Curses, not loud but deep, mouth-honour, breath5 Which the poor heart would fain deny and dare not.Functional Shift
  • Edgar: He childed as I fathered
  • Functional Shift
  • Edgar: He childed as I fathered
  • Coriolanus: This old man godded me
  • Functional Shift
  • Edgar: He childed as I fathered
  • Coriolanus: This old man godded me
  • E.A. Abbott Shakespearian Grammar (1869):
  • ‘You can “happy” your friend, “malice” or “foot” your enemy, or “fall” axe on his neck . . .It was common to place words in the order in which they came uppermost in the mind without much regard to syntax.’ Functional Shift
  • Fall down and knee
  • Your way into his mercy (Coriolanus)Experiments
  • The pizza was too hot to eat
  • The pizza was too hot to sing
  • The pizza was too hot to mouth
  • Experiments
  • The pizza was too hot to eat
  • - no effectExperiments
  • The pizza was too hot to eat
  • - no effect
  • The pizza was too hot to sing
  • - N400 (no sense: semantic violation!)Experiments
  • The pizza was too hot to eat
  • - no effect
  • The pizza was too hot to sing
  • - N400 (no sense: semantic violation!)
  • The pizza was too hot to mouth
  • - P600 (not grammatical: syntactic violation)Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged
  • Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged
  • 2. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you charcoaled
  • Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged
  • 2. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you charcoaled
  • 3. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you poured
  • Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged
  • 2. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you charcoaled
  • 3. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you poured
  • 4. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you madded
  • Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged – No effect
  • Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged – No effect
  • 2. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you charcoaled - N400&P600
  • Experiments
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged – No effect
  • 2. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you charcoaled - N400 & P600
  • 3. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you poured – N400
  • ViolationsN400: semantic; P600: syntactic
  • 1. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you enraged – No effect
  • 2. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you charcoaled - N400 & P600
  • 3. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you poured – N400
  • 4. A father and a gracious aged man: him have you madded – P600
  • Bringing about a Reading RevolutionThe Reader Organisation (TRO)&Centre for Research into Reading, Information and Linguistic Systems (CRILS) Bringing about a Reading RevolutionThe Reader OrganisationHenry James, ‘The Beast in the Jungle’He knew how he felt, but, besides knowing that, she knew how he looked as well. . . she achieved, by an art indescribable, the feat of at once—or perhaps it was only alternately—meeting the eyes from in front and mingling her own vision, as from over his shoulder, with their peep through the apertures.Using fMRI to explore the neural correlates of literary processing: hypothesesLiterary pieces will involve:
  • greater activation of right-sided areas homologous to left sided language areas (e.g. Bottini et al, 1994).
  • Stronger activation of the ‘social brain network’ (Frithand Frith, 2006).
  • a ‘prediction error’ signal when literary texts incorporate an unexpected / functional shift. (retrospective re-evaluation, Corlett et al. 2004)
  • ExperimentsShe lived a lonely life in the countryAnd nobody seem to know or care. But now she is dead I feel her loss. ExperimentsShe lived a lonely life in the countryAnd nobody seem to know or care. But now she is dead I feel her loss. She lived unknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be.But she is in her grave, and, oh,The difference to me.ExperimentsShe livedunknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be.But she is in her grave, and, oh,The difference to me.ExperimentsShelivedunknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be.But she is in her grave, and, oh,The difference to me.ExperimentsShelivedunknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be.But she is in her grave, and, oh,The difference to me.ExperimentsShelivedunknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be.But she isin her grave, and, oh,The difference to me.ExperimentsShe lived unknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be.But she isin her grave, and,oh,Thedifferenceto me.W.R. Bion, Learning from ExperienceIf a person cannot ‘think’ with his thoughts, that is to say, that he has thoughts but lacks the apparatus of ‘thinking’ which enables him to use his thoughts, to think them as it were, then the personality is incapable of learning from experience. This failure is serious. Failure to eat, drink or breathe properly has disastrous consequences for life itself. Failure to use emotional experience produces a comparable disaster in the development of the personality.
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