Potts 2018 - The Persian Gulf in the Cosmographia of the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna c. 700 AD. Dabir 5.

Abstract: The Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna wrote his Cosmographia c. 700 CE. This paper examines that part of the work which list s the names of islands located in the Persian Gulf. It examines the sources of those names, their att est ation in
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  57 The Persian Gulf in the Cosmographia  of the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna, c. 700 AD Daniel T. Po󐁴s Initute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University  Abra󰀀 The Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna wrote his Cosmographia   c. 󰀷󰀰󰀰 CE. This paper examines that part of the work which lis the names of islands located in the Persian Gulf. It examines the sources of those names, their a󰀀eation in earlier sources ( e.g.,  Strabo, Pliny, Arrian, Pomponius Mela, Stephen of Byzantium) and sugges identifications, wher-ever possible, with modern toponyms. Places located on the ea coa of Arabia and in the Oman peninsula are also discussed. Keywords  : Persian Gulf Iran Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna hiorical geography Arsatius Adfroditianus Introdu󰀀ion W hen the eminent Dutch juri and scholar Hugues de Groot, be󰀀er known as Hugo Grotius (󰀱󰀵󰀸󰀳–󰀱󰀶󰀴󰀵), died he le󐀀 behind a manuscript dealing with the hiory of the Goths, Vandals and Lombards which contained three references to an unpublished, ancient chorography (d’Avezac 󰀱󰀸󰀸󰀸, 󰀳󰀳) that allegedly included material drawn from the Orogothic writers Athanarid (c. 󰀴󰀹󰀶–󰀴󰀰󰀷), Marco- 2018, No. 5ISSN: 2470 - 4040 © Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture, University of California, Irvine  58 2018, No. 5 mir and Heldebald (both pre-󰀶󰀰󰀰) — all of whom may have been Gothorum philosophi   (Wright 󰀱󰀸󰀶󰀱, 󰀴) at the court of the Orogothic king Theodoric the Great (reigned 󰀴󰀵󰀴–󰀵󰀲󰀶; Staab 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀶, 󰀵󰀴) in Ravenna — as well as the late Roman writer Jordanes (󰀶th century; Schne󰁺 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀶). Ju a few years a󐀀er Grotius’ death, the equally eminent Isaac Vossius referred in his edition of Pomponius Mela to the author of the same unpublished chorography as the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna (Vossius 󰀱󰀶󰀵󰀸, 󰀱󰀲, 󰀲󰀹, 󰀱󰀷󰀰, 󰀱󰀹󰀷, 󰀲󰀶󰀶, 󰀲󰀶󰀸; herea󐀀er Rav.), noting the frequent correspondences between his teimony and that of the late Roman world map known as the Peutinger Table, dated by some scholars to c. 󰀳󰀰󰀰 AD (Talbert 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀰, 󰀱󰀲󰀳–󰀳󰀲) and by others to the reign of Theodosius II (r. 󰀴󰀰󰀸–󰀵󰀰), since the depi􀀀ion of Conanti-nople on the map appears to show the column of Arcadius which was completed in 󰀴󰀲󰀱 (Weber 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀶, 󰀱󰀰; 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀲, 󰀳󰀶󰀷). The cryptic entry ‘Descriptio Regionum totius Orbis. Ex codice Regio   󰀱󰀴󰀳󰀱’ appeared in a catalogue of manuscripts relating to Classical antiquity and Biblical scripture published in 󰀱󰀶󰀵󰀳 (Labbé 󰀱󰀶󰀵󰀳, 󰀴󰀹) but it was not until 󰀱󰀶󰀸󰀸 that the French Benedi􀀀ine monk Placide Porcheron (󰀱󰀶󰀵󰀲–󰀹󰀴), librar- ian of the Abbey of Saint–Germain–des–Prés (d’Avezac 󰀱󰀸󰀸󰀸, 󰀳󰀸), published an edition, dedicated to Louis XIV, of this Latin text which was in fa􀀀 the very one referred to earlier by Grotius, Vossius and Labbé (Porcheron 󰀱󰀶󰀸󰀸).Since that time only two further exemplars of this work have been identified, one in the Vatican (A = Vaticanus, Urbinas 󰀹󰀶󰀱) and another in Basel (C = Basiliensis F.V. 󰀶). Of the three, the Paris codex (B = Parisinus, bibliothecae nat. 󰀴󰀷󰀹󰀴) is both the olde (󰀱󰀳th century) and the be preserved. The other two are dated, palaeographically, to the 󰀱󰀴th century (Schne󰁺 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀰, 󰀳󰀸󰀰; 󰀱󰀹󰀵󰀱, vii). For almo two centuries Porcheron’s edition was used by scholars working on problems of hiorical geography in Europe and Asia. The great French Orientali Antoine-Isaac Sylvere de Sacy, for example, who wrote extensively on the inscriptions and antiquities of Iran (e.g. Sylvere de Sacy 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀳, 󰀱󰀸󰀱󰀵), owned a copy of Porche- ron’s work (Anonymous 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀷: 󰀳󰀵). In 󰀱󰀸󰀶󰀰 a new edition, based on all three codices (Pinder and Parthey 󰀱󰀸󰀶󰀰), was published and in 󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀰 yet another edition appeared (Schne󰁺 󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀰).Rav.’s geographical breadth is aonishing. As he wrote (Book I.󰀱.󰀵),‘licet in India genitus non sim neque alitus in Scotia neque perambulaverim Mauritaniam simul nec perscrutatus sim Scythian aut per quadrigines ambulaverim mundi, a󰀀amen intelle􀀀uali do􀀀rina imbui totum mundum diversarumque gentium habitationes, sicut in eorum libris sub multorum imperatorum temporibus mundus ie descriptus e.’ ‘though I may not have been born in India or raised in Ireland, though I may not have wandered through Mauretania, inveigated Scythia or travelled in the dire􀀀ion of all four cardinal points of the Earth, I have nevertheless gained, in the course of acquiring a theoretical education, knowledge of the entire world and the lands of different peoples, as described in books from the time of many Emperors.’ Rav.’s modus operandi  , however, departed from that of other chronographers, creating what seems at fir sight an extremely idiosyncratic order for the presentation of individual regions and their se󰀀le- ments. He described it as follows (Book I.󰀱.󰀹–󰀱󰀰): ‘All educated [people] know, that the good Builder of the universe, Chri, our almighty Lord, made everything from nothing and made great lights to adorn  59 Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture the heavens, using which clever men can calculate divisions of time according to the will of the Creator. Therefore, since the sun moves throughout the day on the southern edge [of the world], according to the command of the powerful Creator, and every hour of the day is marked throughout its course for equino􀀀ial time, like a sundial with its divisions, we can precisely describe all peoples and lands which lie in a wide arc of the impassable Ocean.’ In other words, as Franz Staab wrote in 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀶, Rav. ‘visual-izes all the land as one continent surrounded by the ocean, except in the Far Ea where it extends into Paradise. He then diinguishes a northern and a southern half of the earth’s disk. Up to this point, he agrees with the accepted ideas of his time. But then, he diverges by dividing the southern half, arting from the ea, into twelve segments corresponding to the daylight hours, and the northern half, arting from sunset, into twelve segments corresponding to the night hours. In his descriptions of the single countries which follow his introdu􀀀ory explanations he tries to adopt the order of these segments’ (Staab 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀶, 󰀳󰀱; cf. Englisch 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀲, 󰀱󰀶󰀲–󰀶󰀶).Beginning in the ea, Rav. places the Indian peoples in the fir hour, and in the second hour the ‘land of the Persians, in which the very large Persian Gulf is inscribed, which belongs to the upper part of the southern se􀀀ion of the Ocean’ (Book I.󰀲.󰀲). Further on, Rav. devotes a paragraph to the Persian Gulf and its islands. It is to the elucidation of this material and its sources that the remainder of this paper is devoted. Book V 󰀱󰀷  The description of the Persian Gulf begins as follows: ‘In colfo vero Persico ex Oceano summae partis meridianae pertinente sunt diversae insulae, ex quibus et nominare volumus, id e…’‘Now in the Persian Gulf, which extends from the Ocean of the uppermo southern portion [of the world, i.e.,  from the southern part of the world to the Ocean above] are various islands, of which we wish to name a sele􀀀ion, that is…’ A󐀀er this 󰀲󰀰 toponyms are lied (numbers are inserted here before each name for ease of reference: [󰀱] Ogiris, [󰀲] Oracea, [󰀳] Durcadena, [󰀴] Racheros, [󰀵] Orgina, [󰀶] Casara, [󰀷] Cataga, [󰀸] Oana, [󰀹] Ciprusa, [󰀱󰀰] Tagna, [󰀱󰀱] Ilodes, [󰀱󰀲] Morcanaxia, [󰀱󰀳] Aspiate, [󰀱󰀴] Cirta, [󰀱󰀵] Tirus, [󰀱󰀶] Mapi-lide, [󰀱󰀷] Cersonis, [󰀱󰀸] Per/Protarute, [󰀱󰀹] Polea Ponessos, [󰀲󰀰] Thilor.Despite their sometimes variant orthography, Placide Porcheron recognized eight of the toponyms lied by Rav. in the works of much more ancient authors, including Pliny the Elder, Pomponius Mela, Arrian, Claudius Ptolemy and Stephen of Byzantium, and on the Peutinger Table (Porche-ron 󰀱󰀶󰀸󰀸, 󰀲󰀷󰀵). These are as follows:[󰀱] Ogiris – Pliny, Natural Hiory   󰀶.󰀳󰀲, ‘Out at sea off this coa lies the island of Ogyris, famous as the burial place of King Erythras; its diance from the mainland is 󰀱󰀲󰀵 miles and it measures 󰀱󰀱󰀲 󰀱/󰀲 miles round’; Pomponius Mela 󰀲.󰀳󰀶, ‘A number of islands are located in the middle region of this gulf, but Ogyris is more famous than all the others because the funerary monument of King Erythras is on it’ (Romer 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀸, 󰀱󰀲󰀴). [󰀵] Orgina –Arrian, Indica 󰀸.󰀳󰀷, ‘Coaing along a rough and desert island, they anchored off another  60 2018, No. 5 island, a large one, and inhabited….The desert island was called Organa.’ [󰀶] Casara – Insula casara, Tab. Peut.  XI [the number refers to the se􀀀ion of the Peutinger Table on which the name appears]; possibly Cassandra of Pliny, Natural Hiory   󰀶.󰀲󰀸, ‘Off the coa of Persis lie the islands of Psilos, Cassandra and Aracha, the la with an extremely lo󐀀y mountain, and consecrated to Neptune.’[󰀹] Ciprusa – Insula prusa, Tab. Peut.  XI[󰀱󰀱] Ilodes – Insula Yrodes, Tab. Peut.  XI (Pyrodes? Chriianopolus 󰀱󰀸󰀰󰀹, xvi)[󰀱󰀵] Tirus – Tyros, Strabo, Geography   󰀱󰀶.󰀳.󰀴, ‘On sailing further, one comes to other islands, I mean Tyros and Arados, which have temples like those of the Phoenicians’; cf. Stephen of Byzantium, Ethnika  (Meineke 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀹, 󰀶󰀴󰀳)[󰀱󰀹] Poleaponessos – Insula Pol apon nos, Tab. Peut.  XI (Poliaponenos? Chriianopolus 󰀱󰀸󰀰󰀹, xvi)[󰀲󰀰] Thilor – Tylos, Arrian, Indica  󰀷.󰀲󰀰, ‘The other island was reported to be diant about a day and night’s sail for a ship running before the wind; it was called Tylos; and it was large, and neither rough nor wooded for the mo part; but the sort which bore garden fruits and all things in due season’; Claudius Ptolemy, Geography 󰀶.󰀷.󰀴󰀷. With the benefit of nearly another two centuries of scholarship, Pinder and Parthey ill only managed to add one further name, [󰀱󰀷] Cersonis, to this li. They compared this with the toponym Chersonnesos (Χεϱσόννησοϛ) in Claudius Ptolemy’s Geography   󰀷.󰀳 (Pinder and Parthey 󰀱󰀸󰀶󰀰, 󰀳󰀹󰀰). The only ancient toponym identified with a modern place name was [󰀱] Ogiris, which Porcheorn believed was Masira island off the southea coa of the Sultanate of Oman (Porcheron 󰀱󰀶󰀸󰀸, 󰀲󰀷󰀵). Joseph Schne󰁺, who dedicated mo of his scholarly life to the elucidation of Rav.’s work, suggeed several emendations in his translation of the text without, however, making any a􀀀ual identifications. These were as follows: [󰀲] Oracea > Ora􀀀a; [󰀷] Cataga > Catag i/a, [󰀱󰀳] Aspiate > Appane; [󰀱󰀷] Cerso-nis + [󰀱󰀸] Per/Protarute > Cersonis pro[monturium] + Tarute; [󰀱󰀹] Polea Ponessos > Polypo-nesos, [󰀲󰀰] Thilor > Thilos (Schne󰁺 󰀱󰀹󰀵󰀱, 󰀹󰀴). Schne󰁺 did not propose any modern identifications and the queion is, but there remains more to be said about Rav.’s Persian Gulf islands.[󰀱] Ogiris – As noted above, both Pliny and Pomponius Mela refer to Ogiris/Ogyris, as does Dionysius Periegetes (Bernhardy 󰀱󰀸󰀲󰀸, 󰀳󰀷, l. 󰀶󰀰󰀶, Ὠ γυρις). Since the early 󰀱󰀷th century Ogiris has been identified by many scholars with Jarun, i.e. Jazireh-ye Hormuz, in the Straits of Hormuz (e.g. Herbert 󰀱󰀶󰀳󰀴, 󰀴󰀶; d’Anville 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀱, 󰀴󰀹󰀱; Hammer 󰀱󰀸󰀲󰀵, 󰀲󰀵󰀳). As noted above, Porche- orn, possibly following Jean Hardouin’s annotations to Pliny’s Natural Hiory   (Harduinus 󰀱󰀶󰀸󰀵, 󰀷󰀶󰀸), identified Ogiris with Masira island off the southea coa of the Sultanate of Oman (Porcheron 󰀱󰀶󰀸󰀸, 󰀲󰀷󰀵) and in this he had many followers ( e.g  ., Ansart 󰀱󰀸󰀲󰀸, 󰀷󰀱󰀳; Sprenger 󰀱󰀸󰀷󰀵, 󰀱󰀰󰀰; Schiwek 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀲, 󰀷󰀶; Tuplin 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀱, 󰀲󰀷󰀷). Others have identified it with Q  eshm (Arrowsmith 󰀱󰀸󰀳󰀹, 󰀶󰀰󰀵) or Larak (Goukowsky 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀴, 󰀱󰀲󰀲, n. 󰀵󰀴). The great German geographer Carl Ri󰀀er could not decide between Hormuz and Q  eshm (Ri󰀀er 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀷, 󰀹󰀹󰀰).Many have taken Ogyris for a variant of Organa/[󰀵] Orgina ( e.g.,  Salmasius 󰀱󰀶󰀲󰀹, 󰀱󰀱󰀸󰀰). Aloys Sprenger, however, noted that while several manuscripts of Claudius Ptolemy’s Geography   had Ὠ γυρις (Ogyris) as a gloss in the margin alongside Ὀργανα (Organa), this should be interpreted as a subitution for Organa in Ptolemy’s text, not an equation between the two toponyms. Sprenger identified Ogyris with Masira, as Porcheron had done two centuries  61 Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture earlier and believed, with others before him, that Organa, which was incorre􀀀ly inserted here in Ptolemy’s text, denoted Hormuz island (Sprenger 󰀱8󰀷5, 󰀱󰀰󰀰). Others expressed scep-ticism regarding this solution given the great diance ( 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀰 adia) between Karmania and Ogyris ( e.g.,  Mannert 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀷, 󰀵󰀷). Vincent, while favoring the identity of Ogyris and Organa, suggeed that Organa should be emended to ‘O-G’rana, or O-Gerana’, in which he recog- nized the early name Jarun for the island of Hormuz (Vincent 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀷, 󰀳󰀱󰀹–󰀲󰀰). [󰀲] Oracea –– Schne󰁺 suggeed emending this to Ora􀀀a and identifying it with the Ὀάρακτα (Oara􀀀a) of Arrian’s Indica   (󰀳󰀷.󰀲; cf. Oracla in Pliny, Natural Hiory   󰀶.󰀲󰀸; ∆ύ ρακτα, ∆ώ ακτα [Dorakta/Doakta] in Strabo’s, Geography   󰀱󰀶.󰀳.󰀷; ∆ῶρα [Dora] in Stephen of Byzantium’s Ethnika   󰀲󰀵󰀰–󰀱); Οὐοροχϑα [Ouoroha] in Claudius Ptolemy’s Geography   󰀷.󰀹.󰀱5). Oara􀀀a has been identified with Q  eshm, the large island in the Persian Gulf, since the 󰀱8th century due to the preservation of its mediaeval name, Bro􀀀 or Vro􀀀, as recorded by the Portuguese traveller Pedro Teixeira (Herbert 󰀱󰀶󰀳8, 󰀱󰀱5; d’Anville 󰀱󰀷󰀶󰀴, 󰀱󰀴󰀹; 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀱, 󰀴󰀹 󰀲; Vincent 󰀱 󰀷󰀹󰀷 , 󰀳󰀲󰀵; Heeren 󰀱 8󰀰5, 8󰀴󰀱 and n. 󰀱, made the same identification without acknowledging d’Anville and implying that he arrived at this and other identifications of toponyms mentioned in Nearchus’ Indica  by using the modern charts of C. Niebuhr and Delisle de Sales, because, apart from the Greek endings, many names were ill recognizable; I can find no trace of this name on the charts of either Niebuhr or Delisle de Sales; cf. Po󰀀 s 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀱 , 󰀹󰀹) [󰀳] Durcadena – This mu be the same as ‘Dorcados’ on the Peutinger Table. Tomaschek considered Durcadena or [󰀴] ‘Racheros’ to be the island of Larak (Tomaschek 󰀱8󰀹󰀰, 󰀴󰀷).[󰀴] Racheros – see above.[5] Orgina – This has been identified with Claudius Ptolemy’s Organa (  Ὸ ργάνα) and Jarun, i.e. Jazireh-ye Hormuz (Tomaschek 󰀱8󰀹󰀰, 󰀴󰀶). [󰀶] Casara – Müller compared Rav.’s Casara with Kaes [ Q  eys], a modern variant of Kish (Jazireh-ye Q  eys) (Müller 󰀱855, 󰀳󰀶󰀰, n. 5). Tomaschek, however, noted a long, narrow, sandy island known in Arabic as Umm al- Q  a ṣ ār, called ‘Casarusuend’ by Balbi (Balbi 󰀱5󰀹󰀰, 󰀴󰀱), which he compared to Casara (Tomaschek 󰀱8󰀹󰀰, 5󰀹). [󰀷] Cataga – Schne󰁺’s suggeion Catag(i)a recalls Arrian’s Cataea (Καταία), ‘a low-lying island, said to be sacred to Hermes and Aphrodite’ ( Indica  󰀳󰀷.󰀱󰀰). This has been identified by virtually all scholars with Jazireh-ye Q  eys or Kish since the 󰀱8th century (d’Anville 󰀱󰀷󰀶󰀴, 󰀱5 󰀲; Vincent 󰀱 󰀷󰀹󰀷, 󰀳󰀳󰀴; Müller 󰀱85󰀰, 󰀳󰀶󰀰, n. 5). [8] Oana – This is undoubtedly the same as ‘Apoana’, where Nearchus and his fleet anchored and of which Arrian wrote, ‘many boats were anchored there, and there was a village near, about sixty adia from the sea’ ( Indica   8.󰀳8). On the basis of Captain Simmons ( i.e.,  Capt. D. Simmons, commander of the Royal Admiral  , Honorable Ea India Company, who was sailing off of southeaern Arabia in Augu, 󰀱󰀷 󰀷󰀲; see Horsburgh 󰀱󰀸󰀱󰀷, 󰀲󰀴󰀰, ), Vincent identified Apoana with a village called ‘Shevoo’ between Darabin and Cape Nabon, and derived the name with a hypothetical Persian name like Abuan or Dahr-As- bān (Vincent 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀷, 󰀳󰀵󰀲–󰀳; cf. Mannert 󰀱󰀷󰀹󰀷, 󰀵󰀳󰀴, ‘some miles ea of Nabend or Cape Nabon, where however our charts show no se󰀀lement’). Thanks to a detailed comparison of the diances a󰀀ributed to the individual segments of Nearchus’ journey, F.C. Andreas was able to identify Apoana as the bay of Nābānd (Andreas 󰀱󰀸󰀹󰀶, 󰀱󰀷󰀶). He concluded, more-
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