Potts 2018 - The Lands of the Balahute and Lallari. Dabir 5.

Potts 2018 - The Lands of the Balahute and Lallari. Dabir 5.
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  52 The Lands of the Balahute and Lallari Daniel T. Po􀀀s Initute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University  Introduion T he few epigraphic references to the Balahute and Lallari have long been known, if never satisfa􀀀o-rily explained. The Middle Elamite ruler Šilhak-Inšušinak boaed that he brought back cult vessels that had been plundered by the Balahute (EKI 󰀴󰀶 §󰀱󰀹). Where some scholars have viewed this is a true ethnonym, others have viewed it as a descriptor. Maurice Lambert underood the phrase in queion to say that Šilhak-Inšušinak had conquered the land of the highlanders or mountain dwellers (Lambert 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀲: 󰀹󰀳, ‘pays des montagnards’). Walter Hinz and Heidemarie Koch considered it a pejorative, ‘Böse-wichter, Leute auf bösen Pfaden’ ((Hinz and Koch 󰀱󰀹󰀸󰀷: 󰀱󰀳󰀰 s.v.  ; cf. Henkelman 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀸: 󰀹; 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀳: 󰀵󰀸󰀶). Both the Balahute and a second group, the Lallari, appear in two texts of the Neo-Elamite ruler Te(m)pti-Huban-Insušnak who claimed that he conquered their lands on the command of Inšušinak (EKI 󰀷󰀹 VII; EKI 󰀸󰀰 II-III). In the la󰀀er case the names are wri󰀀en ba-la-hu-te-ip-pe and la-al-la-ri-ip-pe   using the common Neo-Elamite posposition – ippe   to refer ‘to the people living on that specific land’ (Gorris 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴: 󰀱󰀶󰀱). The locations of these two groups — presumably close to each other from the context in which they are mentioned together — have not been ascertained, although several suggeions have been advanced in the literature. To begin with Lallar, it is clear that there were several homonymous places by this name in the ancient Near Ea. One, mentioned in the account of Tukultī-Ninurta I’s campaign again the Guti, 2018, No. 5ISSN: 2470 - 4040 © Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture, University of California, Irvine  53 Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture mu have been close to the Lower Zab (Wilcke 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀰: 󰀴󰀱󰀲; Pappi 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀲: 󰀶󰀰󰀴, n. 󰀵󰀴). Another, mentioned in the reign of Šalmaneser III, was in the Amanus mountains close to the Mediterranean (Grayson 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀶: 󰀱󰀷, A.󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀲.󰀶, l. 󰀴󰀵; A.󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀲.󰀱󰀰, i 󰀲󰀹; A.󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀲.󰀱󰀴, l. 󰀳󰀱; A.󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀲.󰀱󰀶, l. 󰀱󰀱; A.󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀲.󰀲󰀸, l. 󰀲󰀳; A.󰀰.󰀱󰀰󰀲.󰀲, ii 󰀱󰀰, where it is called Atalur). Šalmaneser ere􀀀ed a ele on Mount Atalur/Lallar, beside one of Anum-ḫirbe, the early 󰀱󰀸th century BC king of Ma’ama. The site, as yet unidentified, was thought by Olmead to have been ‘on a cliff by the seashore, where one day Antioch’s seaport, Seleucia, was to be located’ (Olmead 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀱: 󰀳󰀵󰀲) but more recently Jared Miller has located it ‘in the southern Kara Daǧ’ (Miller 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀱: 󰀹󰀲-󰀹󰀳). Olmead felt, however, that the inaccuracy of Šalmaneser’s Black Obelisk ‘should forever banish Lallar from topographical discussions’ (Olmead 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀱: 󰀳󰀵󰀲, n. 󰀱󰀹) and its appearance, in place of Atalur, has been explained by Miller as ‘an o󐀀-copied scribal error,’ as srcinally suggeed over a century ago by Maximilian Streck (Streck 󰀱󰀹󰀰󰀶: 󰀳󰀴󰀴-󰀳󰀴󰀵). For no ated reason, George Cameron located the Balahute of Šilhak-Inšušinak’s inscription in ‘the central Zagros’ (Cameron 󰀱󰀹󰀳󰀶: 󰀱󰀲󰀰). René Labat and François Vallat pointed to a river Lallar in Zamua (Labat 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀳: 󰀴󰀹󰀳; Vallat 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀳: 󰀳󰀳, 󰀱󰀵󰀵). Vallat also recalled the Lallari of Tukultī-Ninurta I (Röllig 󰀱󰀹󰀸󰀳: 󰀴󰀳󰀸; cf. the discussion in Gorris 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴: 󰀱󰀶󰀱). Similarly, Ma󰀀 Waters, following Labat and Vallat, proposed that the Balahute and Lallari were to be located ‘in the moun-tains regions below the Li󰀀le Zab in modern Kurdian’ (Waters 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀰: 󰀴󰀸). As Andreas Fuchs pointed out, however, such a location is impossible given the extent of Assyrian control over the region during the reign of Te(m)pti-Huban-Insušnak. Moreover, given that five centuries separated the mention of Lallar in the reigns of Tukultī-Ninurta I and Te(m)pti-Huban-Insušnak, during which time the name is una󰀀eed, Fuchs suggeed that an equivalence between the two toponyms was untenable (Fuchs 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀳: 󰀱󰀳󰀲). Hinz and Koch, on the other hand, without citing any reasons, suggeed that the Balahute inhabited an area neighboring Susiana, probably in what is today Lurian (Hinz and Koch 󰀱󰀹󰀸󰀷: 󰀱󰀳󰀰). Other Iranian alternatives: Lalar, Lalari and pseudo-Balahut Two toponyms in the mountainous area of southweern Iran above Susa and Shushtar, previously overlooked in discussions of the Balahute and Lallari, are of relevance to the present discussion. In the autumn-winter of 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀱/󰀲 Auen Henry Layard explored the Bakhtiyari mountains, noting, ‘To the N. of Shimbár is Lalar Kotek  , a lo󐀀y mountain, where there is a village, near which, I am informed, a sculp- ture was found about two years ago’ (Layard 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀶: 󰀸󰀶). In the mid-󰀲󰀰th century, according to the French anthropologi Jean-Pierre Digard, the village of Lalar  , in the mountains northea of Masjed Soleyman, almo dire􀀀ly due north of Izeh-Malamir, was a place at which taxes were paid by Bakhtiyari tribesmen (Digard 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀶: 󰀲󰀶󰀸; 󰀱󰀹󰀸󰀷: 󰀳󰀲). A second toponym further we noted C.J. Edmonds is ‘ Lalari   (a permanent village of houses in one and mud inhabited by Papi, gardens, reams,’ in southern Lurian, on the route leading from Dizful to Khorramabad (Edmonds 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀲: 󰀳󰀳󰀷). Both of these merit consideration as candidates for the ancient land of the Lallari. Turning to Balahut, in his monograph on traditional and modern agriculture in northern Khuzean, Eckart Ehlers noted that at Karim Khan, c. 󰀱󰀲 miles (󰀱󰀹.󰀳 kms) we-southwe of Dizful, a se󰀀lement of Dinarvand and Sagvand Lurs, Kurds and some Arabs, the fields were irrigated with the waters of the Karkhar and Balahut   river (Ehlers 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀵: 󰀳󰀳, ‘Der Flur wird bewässert durch Ableitungen vom Karkhar– und Balahut-Fluß’). The names Karkhar and Balahut here are, of course, intriguing. One is immedi- ately reminded of the Median town Harhar which Karen Radner (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀳: 󰀴󰀴󰀶) and, hesitantly Ran Zadok (󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀲: 󰀱󰀲󰀴), have identified with Tepe Giyan, ju as Herzfeld had, many years earlier, equated it more  54 2018, No. 5 broadly with the Nehavand region (Herzfeld 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀸: 󰀵󰀰). The ‘Balahut’ river, of course, would be a revela-tion — if it is corre􀀀. Unfortunately, an examination of the area discussed by Ehlers quickly reveals that Balahut   is unqueionably a misrepresentation of Bālārūd  , a common enough hydronym composed of New Persian bālā  , meaning ‘above, upper,’ and rūd  , ‘river’ (Eilers 󰀱󰀹󰀵󰀴: 󰀲󰀹󰀷). While the name is hardly unique — another Balarud river separates Taleš and the Dasht-e Moghan in northweern Iran (Ri󰀀er 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀰: 󰀷󰀹󰀶; Wagner 󰀱󰀸󰀵󰀶: 󰀱󰀳󰀱; Hübschmann 󰀱󰀹󰀰󰀴: 󰀳󰀵󰀱) — a river by this name is indeed located where Ehler’s Balahut should be. As Layard noted, ‘About 󰀵 miles above Dizful it [the Diz river] is joined by the Balád-rúd, or more corre􀀀ly the Bálá-Rúd, “the upper river,” an insignificant ream in the summer months, but a mo impetuous and dangerous torrent in spring’ (Layard 󰀱󰀸󰀴󰀶: 󰀵󰀶; cf. Spiegel 󰀱󰀸󰀶󰀳: 󰀴). More significantly, J.G. Lorimer’s Gaze􀀀eer   entry ‘Balarūd or Bilārūi’ confirms that it is indeed Ehlers’ Balahut   for there we read that the ‘village of ’Amleh Karīm Khān is partly irrigated from the Balārūd’ (Lorimer 󰀱󰀹󰀰󰀸: 󰀲󰀵󰀸), ju as Ehlers found when doing his research many decades later. Conclusion It is, of course, a great disappointment that the ‘Balahut’ river near Dizful has turned out to be a chimera. Perhaps the only way of rehabilitating it would be to speculate that Balarud was an assimi-lation in New Persian of a somewhat similar sounding, pre-Iranian hydronym Balahut. Nevertheless, the identification of Lalar and Lalari in the Bakhtiyari mountains and southern Lurian, respe􀀀ively, while not conclusive, does provide alternatives to the improbable option of locating the targets of Te(m) pti-Huban-Insušnak’s campaign in Kurdian.  55 Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture Bibliography Cameron, G.G. 󰀱󰀹󰀳󰀶. 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