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    Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006  20 Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp 20-27, 2006 Copyright © 2007 Trakia University   Available online at: http://www.uni-sz.bg ISSN 1312-1723 Original Contribution MOODLE LESSON ACTIVITY IN MEASURING THE HARDNESS OF MATERIALS V. Nedeva*, P. Prodanov, Zl. Ducheva, D. Nedev 1 Technical College – Yambol, Trakia University – Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 1 Jacobs University Bremen, Germany   ABSTRACT  In this report we have shown e-learning in Lesson using the software platform MOODLE. This feature allows you to add entire lessons that guide the students, based on their answers. It might be helpful to think of lectures as a kind of flowchart. The student reads a given paragraph. After reading the paragraph, you ask the student some questions. Based on the answers the student gives, the system redirects him or her to another page. The aim is the information not just to be memorized and reproduced but to be connected to real professional situations. Key words : E-learning, Modular Object Orienting Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE), Lessons in MOODLE, Hardness of Material, Grading. INTRODUCTION The purpose of the report is to present the training of the students on the subject, Material Science 1  For this we are submitting for consideration one theme for laboratory exercise - Measuring the Hardness of the Material. It analyses the process of the creation of e-learning lectures in MOODLE and its use. In this report we have included the stages of construction of e-learning content for self-training of students - Skill analysis, Material development, Learning and Evaluation. There are many software platforms for e-learning education. We chose Open source software. Open source means software that is freely available for people to both use and modify. The MOODLE course management system is an open source system that educators can use to create online courses. Starting in 1999, the MOODLE community has now grown so much that by February 2006 there were about 75 000 MOODLE sites in more than 138 countries (and that counts only registered users) in 70 languages (1). It works under Linux, UNIX and Windows operation systems; Apache web server, MySQL database and PHP language. MOODLE is a Course management * Correspondence to : V.I.Nedeva, Bulgaria, Yambol 8600, 11 A D.Blagoev Str.,42; Phone: +359 46-66-91-78; E-mail: vnedeva@tk.uni-sz.bg system - a software package designed to help educators easily create quality online courses. Such e-learning systems are sometimes also called Learning Management Systems or Virtual Learning Environments. The word MOODLE was srcinally an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE), which is mostly useful to programmers and education theorists. The MOODLE is designed and developed by particular philosophy, namely "social constructionist pedagogy". Knowledge is strengthened if the student can use it successfully in his wider environment. Students are not just a memory bank passively absorbing information, nor can knowledge be "transmitted" to them just by reading something or listening to someone (2). METHODS AND RESULTS E-Learning cycle model  Skill analysis The learning manager analyses the learner's  present skills and the skills that need to be acquired, which are set as a learning goal, and obtains the necessary material information. The manager then searches for the related material. A material knowledge training is required for the formation of skills for structure analysis and characterization of   NEDEVA V., et al. Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006  21 learning materials and their distinction. The use of materials is dependent on it. For the  preparation of this laboratory exercise the students must have passed the ex cathedra  method of instruction on this theme and it is necessary to have theoretical knowledge about it. This theme is related to other laboratory exercises in which the students are lectured on and gain knowledge about the crystal structure of metals, their structure analysis, mechanical  proper and indicators and hardness properties on stretch testing. In MOODLE Lesson they can acquire information about methods for measuring the hardness of materials, the factors influencing on method choosing, register results based on their own experience in a spreadsheet table and analyse received data.  Lesson material development The developer creates exercise questions and gives the material-to-be-learned structure (table of contents) linked with explanatory  pages. A lesson delivers its content in an interesting and flexible way. It consists of a number of pages. Each page normally ends with a question and a number of possible answers. Depending on the student's choice of answer they either progress to the next page or are taken back to a previous page. Navigation through the lesson can be straightforward or complex, depending largely on the structure of the material being presented. Lessons are a great way to assess  practical knowledge of a subject, and with the creative use of MOODLE’s HTML editor very effective simulations can be built (3). Lesson module allows you to add entire lessons that guide the student based on the student’s answers. It might be helpful to think of a Lesson activity as a kind of a flowchart. The student reads a given paragraph. After the  paragraph, you ask the student some questions. Based on the answers the student gives, the system sends the student to another page in the Lesson. For example, if a student chooses answer one, then the system might go to page 3. If the student chooses answer two, the system goes to page 1. If the student answers question 3, the system goes to page 5 etc. Lessons are very flexible, but do require some set-up ( Figure1 ). The items on the first page are: • Page title: title of this page only. If you have multiple pages for your lesson, each one will have a title. • Page contents: this is where you put the information you are trying to convey. It may be a story, a problem to solve or anything that you want to ask questions about. You should usually end the section with a question that will be answered by the students. • Answer 1 (or Answer #): this is where you type one answer to the question you asked. You fill in one answer per Answer #, up to the maximum you defined. You do not have to fill them all in. • Response #: after each Answer # section, there is a Response #. This is an explanation that the student will see after  picking one of the possible answers and  before being redirected to another page (or staying on the same page). • Jump to: after each Response # there is a field that tells the system what to do if the student picks that number. You can tell the system to end the lesson, to stay on the current  page, or to jump to any page that already exists (forward or back). For example, if the student picks Answer 1 and the “Jump to” field is set to go to the next page, he will be sent to the next page of the lesson. Grading is determined by the navigation. That is, if a student stays on the same page or is sent to a  previous page, then the answer is counted as wrong. If the student picks an answer and is sent to a later page, then the answer is counted as correct. By default, Answer 1 sends the student to the next page, and all the other Answers keep the student on the same page,  but that can be changed. The students will see the order of the Answers mixed up (Answer 1 may actually be the fourth question asked). We are using the Lesson Module because it is necessary to give the students some information about the topic being taught – the methods of measurement of material hardness, tables of completed experiments to be used for calculation, in formulas etc. The topic is  broken into small chunks and shown to the student bit by bit. Each part is re-enforced by requiring the students to answer questions. The students proceed through the material only by answering the questions correctly. Wrong answers are "penalized" either by showing the same material again or going even further back in the lesson, even to the  beginning of the lesson!   NEDEVA V., et al. Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006  22 Figure 1 . Stages of lesson material development Within the lesson these chunks are called Pages. The length of each page is arbitrary but normally it should not be more than the amount that comfortably fits on a screen. Each page can have a question at the end, and can lead to any other page. This module can create a series of pages, which can be  presented in a linear fashion, like a slide show, or in a non-linear, branching manner, or a combination of the two. It can be graded, with questions, or not graded and used simply as a resource.   NEDEVA V., et al. Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006  23 There are two basic modes: a flash card mode and a presentation mode. Lesson includes many features to make cheating more difficult and lesson  presentation more interesting through question clustering, password protection, and time limits. By mixing content with questions, lesson enables you to implement the Practice Principle of e-learning, where practice is integrated with instructional material. Pages, questions, answers and responses A lesson is made up of pages. Normally each  page gives some information and then finishes with a question. The question can be easy or hard, depending on the audience. It should be directly related to the material covered in the  page. In our case the pages are following: •   Page 1 Definition of the term hardness; •   Page 2 Question about Definition – Multiple Choice Question; •   Page 3 Methods for Measuring the Hardness - defined measurement  procedure. The usual method to achieve a hardness value is to measure the depth or area of an indentation left by an indenter of a specific shape, with a specific force applied for a specific time. There are three  principal standard test methods for expressing the relationship between hardness and the size of the impression, these being Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell. •   Page 4 Question about test Methods. •   Page 5 Question about comparison of test Methods. •   Page 6 Brinell’s HB test Method – tables, schemes and formulas. •   Page 7 Question about Brinell’s test method – matching question. (Figure2) •   Page 8 Implementiation of Brinell’s test method. •   Page 9 Hardness of unhardened steel with  Numerical question. •   Page 10 Vickers’ HV test Method - tables, schemes and formulas. •   Page 11 Rockwell’s HR test Method - tables, schemes and formulas. •   Page 12 Implementation of Rockwell’s HR test method with Numerical question. •   Page 13 Results of the different test Methods – hardness conversion table. Figure 2 Screen shot of matching question in Lesson “Measuring the hardness of materials” Attached to each page is a set of answers to the question (1). Usually there is one correct answer and a small number of wrong answers. This type of question is called a multiple-choice question. It is a common type of question and it is the default question type in   NEDEVA V., et al. Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006  24 the Lesson module. The number of answers can vary from page to page. Some pages can have one correct answer and three wrong answers; other pages may ask questions where there are three answers or even two answers (for example true or false, or just yes or no). There is a limit to the number of answers. This maximum is one of the  parameters of the Lesson module, set initially when you add a Lesson. However, this maximum limit is flexible and can be changed at any time. The limit just determines the number of boxes you see when adding or editing pages. Along with the answers there is a set of responses. Each answer has its own response. Once the student has chosen an answer that response is displayed before the "new" page is displayed. (The word "new" is in quotes  because the student may well be shown the same page again if he chooses the wrong answer.) The responses are usually short; a simple "That's right" or "That's wrong" might  be sufficient. They could, however, explain why the answer, which seemed right is actually wrong. There may be circumstances when the teacher does not want to end a page with a question and a set of answers. This is allowed; the students are simply shown a Continue link and are shown the next page in the lesson. What exactly is meant by "the next page" is explained below. Building lessons When creating a lesson the teacher is required to enter the text of the first page and that  page's set of answers and responses. Once the first page is in place the teacher has the option of adding more pages or editing that page. When the lesson contains more than one page the teacher has the addition option of moving  pages, that is, changing the order of the pages. Thus once the lesson is under construction the teacher can add pages, edit pages, remove  pages and move pages. It is envisioned that a lesson will normally cover a limited topic in possibly five to ten pages. And a course might have  possibly a larger number of lessons. The module is not designed to handle lessons which have a large number of pages; such "lessons" should be broken down into more manageable sections. The Lessons link (in the  page header) shows all the lessons within a course and provides both teachers and students with a unifying framework. Learning The learner engages in learning what is proper to the need, that is, individual learning for knowledge acquisition, or collaborative learning for workshop-type learning ( Figure 3 ). Logical order and navigation order The order of the pages of a lesson is usually determined by the material (4). Mostly the teacher will want to present the material in a way which is most easily understood and which builds in a logical and progressive way. In the Lesson module, this order is called the Logical Order and this is how the pages are usually shown to the teacher. The teacher sees all the pages on one long screen with the first  page at the top. Once a lesson contains two or more  pages the teacher can move existing pages around and add pages to any position within the set. This logical ordering of pages is also the default Navigation Order. The latter is order in which the students see the pages. In the default navigation order, correct answers show the next page (in the Logical order) and incorrect answers show the same page again, that is the student is asked the same question again. This default navigation order is  possibly OK for the majority of lessons. However, it is possible to change the "Jump" associated with any answer so that a more complicated path through the lesson can be created. These jumps can be divided into two types - Relative Jumps and Absolute Jumps. The default navigation using the relative  jumps Next Page and Same Page, the destination of the Next Page jump is the next  page in the logical order of the lesson. Absolute jumps specify the actual page to show next by specifying of the page's Title. Thus a lesson can have "branches", loops and a non-linear structure. The teacher can see how a lesson's navigation "works" by using Check Question  button at the end of each page or by using the Check Navigation link at the very end of the lesson. The Check button "launches" the lesson at that page. The Check Navigation links starts the lesson at the first page, the way a student would see the lesson initially. Answers Typically each question within a lesson will have one correct answer and several wrong answers. In the current version of the Lesson module the answers are not flagged as being
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