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Neurochemical Evidence Supporting Dissociation and NDE as a Continuum of Perceptual Events

Neurochemical Evidence Supporting Dissociation and NDE as a Continuum of Perceptual Events
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  Running head: DISSOCIATIVE NDE CONTINUUM 1 Neurochemical Evidence Supporing Di!!ociaion and NDE a! a Coninuum o" #ercepual Even!11 Decem$er %&1'(ohn )arder *iological *a!i! o" *ehavior Dr+ ,oung  DISSOCIATIVE NDE CONTINUUM% Introduction The DSM-V de"ine! "ive !u$caegorie! under he .di!!ociaive. manle - di!!ociaive amne!ia /"ormerl0 di!!ociaive "ugue2 di!!ociaive ideni0 di!order2 deper!onali3aion di!order2 dereali3aion di!order2 and di!!ociaive di!order no oher4i!e !peci"ied+ 5or par!imon0 o" re!earch2 raher han clinician! e6erci!e2 he clade 4ill hence"orh 4ear he acron0m D#D2 a"er i! mo! uni7ue diagno!ic elemen2 4hile DID2 "or i! anomalou! and conrover!ial naure2 4ill  $e ideni"ied direcl0 4hen appropriae+Di!!ociaive Di!order! ran8 among he mo! di""icul o p!0chological di!order! o under!and2 a! 4ell a! o diagno!e+ Unli8e even he hi!oricall0 enigmaic !uie o" !chi3ophrenia -negaive2 po!iive2 and di!organi3ed - here are no 8no4n herediar0 elemen! uni7ue o D#D2 nor are here conclu!ive non-inva!ive $iomeric e!!+ Clinician! mu! rel0 enirel0 on !el"-repor daa o 7uali"0 he di!order2 hi! coming 4ih i! o4n complicaion!2 a! mi!ideni"icaion2 mi!diagno!i!2 and he naure o" he di!order o evade clear ariculaion even "rom he per!pecive o" he clien !u""ering i+ The naure o" he condiion al!o impair! he poenial a$ili0 "or !u""erer! o !ee8 help or !hare poeniall0 incomprehen!i$le e6perience 4ih oher!+ The allied  prevalence rae! re"lec hi! mur80 and e6perimenal grouping o" la$el!+ According o he DSM-V2 appro6imael0 19 o" American! chronicall0 !u""er "rom D#D2 $u poeniall0 e6ceeding '9 o" American! !u""er "rom ran!ien aac8! la!ing le!! han a 4ee82 ma8ing i he hird mo! 4ide!pread p!0chopaholog0 in he US populaion $ehind an6ie0 and depre!!ive di!order!+ Diagnostic Features Diagno!i! ma0 $e mea!ured "rom one or more o" an0 o" he "ollo4ing !u$ecive "eaure!:unreali02 !hi" in "amiliari02 deachmen2 num$ne!!2 di!em$odimen2 ou-o"-$od0 e6perience!2 hallucinaion!+ A perva!ive !en!e o" unreali0 concern! he percepual e6perience ha he 4orld2  DISSOCIATIVE NDE CONTINUUM;in he ca!e o" dereali3aion !u$0pe2 or he !el"2 in he ca!e o" deper!onali3aion !u$0pe2 ha! a8en he meaphoric characeri!ic! o" a dream2 lac8ing !igni"icance and reali!m+ The 4orld ma0appear o "laen and di!or2 a! i" a movie !creen or an o$ec $ehind gla!!+ )o4ever2 i i! imporan o noe ha imparimen o" deph percepion and<or moor coordinaion i! no a nece!!ar0 "eaure o" D#D and !ugge!! in!ead o" a cere$ellar or dopaminergic di!regulaion2 a! in negaive !chi3ophrenia or #ar8in!on!+ The D#D clien can inerac 4ih he 4orld and hem!elve!2 $u he .4rongne!!. o" he ineracion per!i!!+ Thi! .4rongne!!. ma0 appl0 o "amiliar ac7uainance! or environmen!2 or o he !el"+ Ap illu!raion o" hi! principle i! he phenomena o" .!emanic !aiaion. or .!auraion.2 in 4hich a common 4ord li8e .!no4. i! !po8en repeiivel0 unil i lo!e! all meaning and induce! a ran!ien condiion o" le6ical con"u!ion or ulimae num$ne!! o he producion o" he!enon!en!e !0lla$le!2 mirroring he num$ne!! or deachmen naive o D#D $0 ineracion 4ih a dream-li8e environmen 4ih a ro$o-li8e !el"+ Ro$o-li8e2 auomaic2 or even .predeermined.  percepual !en!aion! are no e7uivoca$le o paranoid !chi3ophrenia 0pe!2 a! here i! no nece!!ar0 preen!e o" per!ecuor0 iner"erence in he D#D paien=! ine6plica$le lo!! o" auonom0+ Their voliional movemen! ma0 carr0 ou a! inended2 0e here i! a !eparaion  $e4een he percepion o" inenion and he inenion=! e6pre!!ion2 even in ver0 comple6 higher-order a!8! li8e anal0ic 4riing2 in he ca!e o" Su3anne Segal /Simeon2 D+2 A$ugel2 (+2 %&&> or a4ard-4inning philo!oph0 and poer02 in he ca!e o" )enri-5r?d?ric /Simeon2 D+2 A$ugel2 (+2 %&&>+ Thi! "eaure o" di!em$odimen2 e""ecivel0 a percepual !eparaion o" he mind and $od02 ma0 al!o accompan0 ou-o"-$od0 hallucinaion! - a !en!e o" "loaing2 dri"ing2 "ollo4ing he !el"2  po!!i$l0 accompanied $0 hallucinaor0 verigo+ The appearance o" auo!copic "eaure! perain o he D#D !uie a! 4ell+ Auo!cop0 i! de"ined a! a di!em$odimen or ou-o"-$od0 hallucinaion2  DISSOCIATIVE NDE CONTINUUM@and in $oh po!iive<negaive and inner<ouer dimen!ion+ Negaive auo!cop02 he mo! "re7uen o deper!onali3aion di!order2 i! he "ailure o ideni"0 he !el" in mirror-image re"lecion!+ Conra!ing o po!iive auo!cop02 po!iive auo!cop0 i! he in!igh"ul2 comple6 vi!ual hallucinaion o" he !el" "rom an elevaed po!iion2 inerchanga$le 4ih he phenomena o" he cla!!ic medical .ou o" $od0 e6perience. during ane!he!ia2 4hich ma0 progre!! "urher ino an illu!or0 percepion o" ran!por 4ih vi!ual "eaure!2 a! he cla!!ic .near deah e6perience.+ Intersection With NDE  Near-deah-e6perience! are no onl0 real2 he0 are e!!enial o he complee under!andingo" D#D2 a! he !0mpomaic "eaure! appear o e6i! on a coninuum o" !u$ecive e""ec2 !el"-repored and oher4i!e+ Separa$le "rom claim! o" la0men and ou!ide he pro"e!!ional lieraure2 he e6i!ence o" he near-deah e6perience2 a lea! in a !u$ecive e6perienial capaci02 i! veri"ied a! recenl0 a! hi! 0ear /Marial e al+2 %&1'+ hile conrar0 o he popular media vi!ion o" .ile E Co0oe. ri!ing o he pearl0 gae! upon colli!ion 4ih an Acme Anvil2 he !e7uence o" he!e characeri!ic "eaure! - di!em$odimen2 ran!por2 comple6 vi!ual hallucinaion! 4ih in!igh2 and ran7uili0 - appear o order hem!elve! irregularl02 u! a! he !uie o" !0mpom!  peraining o D#D do no neal0 ran8-"ile in !everi0 or duraion+ ile E=! ran7uil deachmen ma0 come "ir! in he even o" colli!ion2 ha peace vani!hing rapidl0 a! he gain! he percepion ha he longer inha$i! hi! $od0 and de!perael0 4an! i $ac8+ No unli8e Su3anne Segal2 a  p!0chologi! #hD "rom he Univer!i0 o" Cali"ornia2 *er8ele02 4ho !u""ered 4ha appeared e6poneniall0 a! a ver0 !evere epi!ode o" deper!onali3aion2 !el"-reporing ha her .!el". had !hi"ed o diagonall0 $ehind her head2 $e"ore hinning and di!appearing2 leaving onl0 panic and an inangi$le !en!e o" impending doom in i! place+ Segal=! !0mpom! never re!olved2 and !he died o" a $rain umor 4elve 0ear! laer+ hile he degree and !peci"ici0 o 4hich ha umor  DISSOCIATIVE NDE CONTINUUMBinduced NDE-D#D p!0chopaholog0 can never $e 8no4n "or !ure2 he lieraure o" di!!ociaive chemical agen! con"idenl0 move! he !u$ec o" deah-ran!iion! a4a0 "rom he !upernaural and ino he !cieni"ic+The career o" + (an!en de"iniivel0 lin8! he percepual "eaure! o" near-deah-e6perience o he NMDAR anagoni! !u$!ance 8eamine2 an u$i7uiou! ane!heic agen  popular in animal hu!$andr0 and pediaric! "or i! a$!en e""ec on re!piraor0 depre!!ion+ In a do!e-dependen "a!hion2 8eamine rever!i$l0 $loc8! he NMDA recepor2 prohi$iing he pa!!age o" Ca and rai!ing he hre!hold "or neurological impul!e! o ran!mi2 in !uch a 4a0 ha he  $rain i! incremenall0 .!hu do4n.2 neuron! no longer holding he poenial o chemicall0 communicae reducing mea$oli!m o" AT# and o60gen2 hu! e6ending he li"e o" he inerneuroni!el" in addiion o removing e6cioo6ic "eaure! "rom he neurological environmen+ The u!e o" 8eamine "or hi! purpo!e i! no incidenal 4ih i! properie! a! an ane!heic agen2 $u al!o a! a clinical neuroproecive: inrahemi!pheric in"u!ion o" 8eamine preven! cell lo!! "rom e6cioo6ici0 in cere$ral i!chemia and !ei3ure+ The maor p!0choacive compound in canna$i!2 -eroh0drocanna$inol-dela /T)C2 !hare! a minor a""ini0 "or he NMDAR !ie 4ih !imilar anagoni!ic acion2 and in !uch a 4a0 pariall0 vindicae! i! purpored ani-!ei3ure neuroproecive properie! - 4hile he maor a""iniie! o C*1 and D% !ie!2 a! 4ell a! general impre!!ion! on neuroglia2 limi he purpored $ene"i! "rom developing ino a 4hole!ome and medicall0 u!e"ul repuaion+ T)C i! ideni"ied2 in "ac2 a! one poenial !re!!or o" D#D o  precipiae+ Oher relevan p!0choomimeic agen! e7uaed 4ih NDE-"eaure! are de6romehorphan /DFM and MFE2 di""ereniaed $0 mu-endorphin and B)T a""iniie!2 re!pecivel0+ In (en!en=! "inding!2 in"u!ion o" 8eamine regardle!! o" genuine e6cioo6ic !re!! e""ecivel0 precipiaed all maor "eaure! o" NDE! - comple6 in!igh hallucinaion!2 ran!por2
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