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Kinship Terminology

Kinship Terminology
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  Assignment on Kinship Terminology Prepared For SHAHRIOR RAHMAN RAJU ASSISTANT PROFESSIOR SOCIOLOGY DISCIPLIEN KHULNA UNIVERSITY Prepared By SADMAN JOA ID  –  181628 1 st  Year, 1 st  Term Sociology Discipline Khulna University March, 2018    Abstract   The goal of this paper is to analys and know the terminologies about kinship. Many authors define kinship in various ways. Kinship is a thing which is described in many ideas. Sometimes it is described in words, and sometimes with genealogical grid or hierarchical figure. And in this paper, the six terms are not only described in words, but are described with the genealogical chart also. Because, as it is the paper about kinship terminology, not about kinship, that is why the genealogical charts are important describing the terminologies. Key Words Kinship, Genealogical, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Omaha, Crow, Sudanese, Eskimo. Introduction The paper is about the terminologies of kinship. This paper provides some distinct terminologies and discussions about kinship. Writers and researchers described kinship and it’s terminology in different way s. To say something about kinship terminological system or when kinship term arrived, six specific terms come first; these are Hawaiian, Iroquois, Omaha, Crow, Sudanese and Eskimo. In this paper, six terminological systems are described with their genealogical chart (DWIGHT W. READ: FORMAL ANALYSIS OF KINSHIP). Kinship and kinship terminologies are an important discussion of anthropology. Because we get to know what are the differences between the terminologies of various kinship.  Discussion All societies recognize kinship relationship which may be broad range or narrow range.   In every society, they have their own perspective about kinship. They have their own ideologies about kinship. Kinship terminologies obviously form a sub-language that classifies the kinship universe. The term ‘kin’ was adopted by Andrew Lang and F. G. Fr  azer and it means relatives. Kinship refers to a particular category of relationships which exist  between two individuals, or a group of individuals (E.O. Ayisi:18) . There are three degrees of kins  –   primary, secondary and tertiary are referred by specific kin terms. The primary kin is the person who is related to ego directly, secondary kin is the person related to ego through a primary kin and tertiary kin is the person who is related to ego through a secondary kin. For recognizing and addressing the kins, certain kin terms are used. There are two things, ‘Term of Reference’ and ‘Term of Address’. Term of Reference means the term expressing the actual relationship whereas ‘Term of Address’ means the term used for addressing that relative. The kin terms function to classify kins into different categories. First, they classify particular kinds of persons into single specific categories; second, they separate different kinds of persons into distinct categories. (Trautmann, T.R.:1981). ‘Morgan’ is the person who contributed in kinship terminologies and did his so many research in many places in the world and set two broad sense , those are classificatory and descriptive systems of kinship terms. ‘G.P. Murdock’ is another person who ad ded two other categories of kin terms. ‘Lowie’ is another one who invented fourfold taxonomy of kinship as Generational, Bifurcate merging, Bifurcate collateral and Lineal types of kinship terminological systems. Statistical anthropologist ‘Murdock’ recog nized six major terminological systems of different societies in the world  –   1.   Hawaiian 2.   Iroquois 3.   Omaha 4.   Crow 5.   Sudanese and 6.   Eskimo.  The six major kinship terminological figures - 1.   Hawaiian This is called ‘Hawaiian’ kinship terminology because the system is followed in ‘ Hawaii ’. In this system, same sex from all relatives referred by one term, as example mother means all relatives of the both sides in category of mother. (Anthropology: The Study of Man: 540) 2.   Iroquois The system is named for the Iroquois Indian tribe of North America. Brothers of father and father are indicates here with the same term. For cross cousins, both are indicated by same term but differentiated by sex. But Parallel cousins are indicates with different term. (Anthropology: The Study of Man:540)    3.   Omaha Omaha is the kinship system that is found in some societies of the world where Patrilineal decent groups exist. Here also father and father’s brothers are used by same term like ‘Iroquois’ system. All female members are grouped together but the paternal side show separate term for their male and female members.(Anthropology:The Study of Man:540) 4.   Crow Crow is named after the North American Tribe. The system ‘Crow’ is mainly a matrilineal system. It is similar to the ‘Patrilineal Omaha System’. It mainly indicates the kinship term of mother’s side instead of showing father’s side. It’s followers use same  term for indicating father, father’s brother & father’s sister. And like the previous one, father’s sister & father’s sister’s daughter are indicated by the same term.
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