Effects of sanitary landfills on surface water quality in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State

Effects of sanitary landfills on surface water quality in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State
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    73  | Eteng et al.   RESEARCH PAPER   OPEN CCESS   Effects of sanitary landfills on surface water quality in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State E. O. Eteng 1 , V. E. Offiong 2 , R. A. Offiong 2* 1 Dept. of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria 2  Dept. of Urban and Regional, CRUTECH, Nigeria  Article published on August 24, 2013   Key words: Sanitary landfill, surface water, physico-chemical parameters, Calabar Municipalit.  Abstract The study assessed the effects of sanitary landfills on surface water quality in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. Water samples were collected using ragolis plastic containers of 1.5 liters from surface water bodies within landfill sites and analysed using standard methods. DO, BOD and COD values obtained across the course of the river were far below WHO and FEPA minimum permissible limits for the discharge of effluents into surface  water. TDS values were within WHO and FEPA minimum permissible limits of 500 mg/L, but turbidity values of the water bodies (2 to 949 NTU) were higher than WHO recommended limit of 5 NTU. The concentration of nitrate (NO 3 ) and sulphate (SO 4 ) ranged from 3.20 to 4.956mg/L, and between 3.72 to 194.3mg/L respectively; the values were far below WHO and FEPA maximum permissible levels of 10mg/L and 250mg/L respectively.  ANOVA result revealed that the sampled surface water bodies did not vary significantly in the chemical composition of parameters (F =0.639, ≤0.05). The study suggested that government and cooperation individuals should institute close monitoring of the various human activities in the area to maintain the cleanliness of the area as well ensure the continuous suitability of surface water bodies * Corresponding Author: R. A. Offiong  Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online)  Vol. 3, No. 8, p. 73-82, 2013  74  | Eteng et al.   Introduction Globally, the reliance on sanitary landfills is a common phenomenon in the disposal of waste materials. But in Nigeria, the lack of capital and appropriate technology for environmentally friendly  waste management practices has left most cities and urban areas to rely on landfills for solid waste disposal, and in most cases the landfills are not properly engineered and operated to accepted world standards (Kola-Olusanya, 2005). For the past three decades or so, landfilling has been favoured as a method of waste disposal for a number of reasons, often because it is probably the cheapest available method and also as a result of the availability of holes in the ground. Water as a gift of nature is generally  believed to have no enemy. Despite the abundance of fresh water on the earth, many regions are in deep crisis of water shortage due to there being polluted by human activities, or the ever increasing demand by industrialization and high population growth. Thus, groundwater is the alternative source of fresh water in areas where surface water is polluted or particularly in arid and semi-arid region of the world. However, the ground water that is presently rely on is generally  been grossly polluted by various sources such as the dumping of wastes in landfills.  Areas near landfills have a greater possibility of groundwater contamination because of the potential pollution source of leachate srcinating from the nearby site. Such contamination of groundwater resource poses a substantial risk to local resource user and to the natural environment. The impact of landfill leachate on the surface and groundwater has given rise to a number of studies in recent years (Suman et al.,  2005). Contamination of groundwater by leachate renders the groundwater and the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other  beneficial uses. This is far more serious than river pollution because aquifers require extensive time periods for rehabilitation. Once waste is deposited at the landfill (dumpsite) pollution can arise from the migration of both gas and leachate. There are three  broad types of contaminants present in leachates that can pollute groundwater and subsequently affects public health. These are hazardous chemicals, conventional and non-conventional contaminates. The cost of cleaning up groundwater contaminated by Municipal Solid Waste landfill leachates require large sum of money and technology, which are presently not available in our society. Inadequate solid waste management (SWM) is thus a major environmental problem in Calabar metropolis. The contributing factors range from technical problems to financial and institutional constraints. There is an absence of any properly designed solid  waste disposal facilities in the state therefore posing contamination risk to both ground and surface  waters. Groundwater is known as major source of  water supply in the project area and in Calabar in general, and its contamination is a major environmental and health concern. Despite the inherent impact on the environment. Many cities and areas in Nigeria still rely on sanitary landfills for the disposal of household wastes. The implication is the continuous contamination of available water sources  with inherent effects on human health. However, literature is sparse on the impact of these sanitary landfills on surface water. In view of this fact, this study therefore focuses on the impact of landfills on surface water quality in Calabar Municipality of Cross River State, Nigeria. Materials and methods  Studyarea Calabar Metropolis is located between latitude 8 0 15 I  E and 8 0  20 I E, and longitude 4 0  45 I  N and 5 0  30 I  N. The city lies on a peninsula formed by the Calabar River, Great Kwa River, the Cross River State estuary and the Atlantic Ocean. It has a sub-equatorial type of climate; the temperature is moderately high and not fluctuating greatly. The maritime position of Calabar exercises considerable ameliorating influence on its climate. The mean temperature is about 25 0 C with a range of about 8 o C. The annual rainfall exceeds 300 millimeters, most of which comes in the wet season from May to October. The relative humidity is high  75  | Eteng et al.   throughout the year, giving a mean annual figure of about 84%. The vegetation of the area is mainly that of mangrove swamp, the raffia swamp and cultivated  vegetable gardens, numerous isolated stands of cultivated semi-wild oil palm and coconut palm trees. There are two major drainage systems in Calabar. These are the Calabar River system and the Great Quo river system. Geologically, the area is composed of two main formations. Thecoastal plain sands, the equivalent of Benin formation, are of tertiary period. This formation consists of light brown to grayish  white sands. Sometimes with decomposed feldspar fragments and pockets of clay.  Data collection procedure   Prior to data collection visits were made to the study sites during which, sites for data collection were delineated; surface water samples within and adjoining landfill sites were marked for collection.  Water samples were collected using ragolis plastic containers of 1.5 liters. Water samples were collected at the borehole heads. Prior to sample collection, all plastic containers were rinsed thrice with the  borehole water. After sampling, the containers will be tightly covered to minimize oxygen contamination, and escape of dissolved gases; the samples were appropriately labeled and stored in a cooler of 4 0 C, and immediately taken to the laboratory at the University of Calabar for analysis of physical and chemical parameters using standard methods (APHA, 1998). Results   Comparative analysis of quality status of selected surface waters  The quality status of water obtained from the four  water samples (Table 1) varied spatially due to  variation in the location of the water as well their distances from landfill sites within and around their catchment. The Table shows that pH level was high in stations 1, 4 and 2 and low in station 3 with pH values of 8.28, 8.21, 8.16 and 5.73 respectively. For temperature, high value was recorded on station 4 followed closely by station 2 and then station 1, while low temperature value of 26.3 0 C was recorded on the third station. Other stations had temperature values ranging from 27.2 - 27.8 0 C. The content of dissolved oxygen (DO) happened to high on station 3 followed  by stations 1 and 2, low DO value was obtained in station 4 with values of 2.2 mg/L, 0.9mg/L, 0.4mg/L and 0.2 mg/L. respectively (Table 1). In a similar manner, nitrate (NO 3 ) contents were high on station 3, followed closely by stations 4 and 1 with values of 4.96mg/L, 3.78mg/L and 3.22mg/L respectively. Low nitrate concentration was recorded on station 2 with  value of 3.20mg/L. The levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD) differed between the water samples  with the station 2 recording high value of 0.06 mg/L, followed by station 4 and then stations 1 and 3 with  values of 0.02 mg/L (Table 1). Table 1. Quality status of selected sachet waters. Parameters Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 pH 8.28 8.16 5.73 8.21 Tempt ( 0 C) 27.2 27.4 26.3 27.8 EC (us/cm) 11620 10646 93.2 11268 TDS (mg/L) 58.00 53.21 46.6 56.34 DO (mg/L) 0.9 0.4 2.2 0.2 BOD (mg/L) 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.03 COD (mg/L) 0.00 0.003 2.0 0.000 Hardness (mg/L) 280.0 269.4 12.2 271.2 NO 3  (mgL) 3.216 3.200 4.958 3.781 PO 4  (mg/L) 0.009 0.004 0.000 0.004 SO 4 (mg/L) 188.8 186.2 3.722 194.3 NH 4 (mg/L) 0.018 0.014 0.002 0.014 Na (mg/L) 710.0 690.1 14.80 686.2 CL (mg/L) 1900 1840 26.00 1821 Turbidity (mg/L) 878 846 2 949 Mg (mg/L) 370.0 486.8 4.340 394.1 Station 1: On source point from the landfill (Ikot Effanga); Station 2: Surface water from stream close to the Ikot Effanga landfill; Station 3: Borehole near the Ikot Effanga landfill as alternative water source; Station 4: Surface  water from downstream from water board intake Ikot Effanga.  76  | Eteng et al.   For chemical oxygen demand (COD), high values  were recorded on station 3 followed by station 2  with values of 2.0mg/L and 0.003mg/L respectively. In other stations (1 and 4), COD was not detected. Total dissolved solids (TDS) content  was high on station 1 followed by station 4 with  values of 58.00 mg/L and 56.34mg/L respectively,  while low TDS value of 46.6mg/L was obtained on station 3 (Table 4.1). Turbidity values of the water sampled bodies were high on station 4 followed closely by stations 1 and 2 with values of 949 NTU, 878 NTU and 846 NTU respectively. Low turbidity  value was reported on station 3 with value of 2 NTU. Level of total hardness was high on station 1 followed by stations 4 and 2 with values of 280mg/L, 271.2mg/L and 269.4mg/L respectively,  while low value of 12.2mg/L was obtained on station 3. In addition, the proportion of sulphate (SO 4 ) in the sampled water bodies was high on station 4 followed by stations 1 and 2 with values of 194.3mg/L, 188.8mg/L and 186.2mg/L respectively. For the proportion of ammonium (NH 4 ) in the  water samples, high value of 0.018mg/L was recorded on station 1, followed by stations 2 and 4  with values of 0.014 respectively, while station 3 had a low value of 0.002mg/L. The content of chloride was high on station 1 with value of 1900mg/L, followed closely by station 2 with value of 1840mg/L and then the fourth station with value of 1821mg/L, while low chloride content was recorded again on station 3 with a value of 26.00mg/L. High magnesium content of 486.8 mg/L was recorded on station 2, followed by stations 4 and 1 with values of 393.1mg/L and 370mg/L respectively, while low value of 4.34mg/L  was obtained on 3. Furthermore, high content of electrical conductivity (EC) was obtained on station 4 with value of 11620µs/cm, followed by stations 4 and 2 with values of 11268µs/cm and 10646µs/cm respectively, while station 3 recorded the lowest  value of 93.2µs/cm. Finally, high content of sodium (Na) was obtained on station 1 with value of 710mg/L, followed by stations 2 and 4 with values of 690.1mg/L and 686.2mg/L respectively, while station 3 recorded the lowest value of 14.80mg/L (Table 1). Comparatively, station water sample is adjudged the most suitable for domestic use and aquatic sustenance as the proportion of its parameters is low and far within WHO permissible limits; this is followed by station 2 and then station 4. Station 1 is the most polluted of the water bodies as most of its measured parameters are higher than other stations; the contents of Mg, Cl and turbidity among others exceeded WHO and FEPA maximum permissible limits Table 2 Physico-chemical parameters of selected water samples. Parameters Stn. 1 Stn. 2 Stn. 3 Stn. 4 Permissible limit  WHO FEPA pH 8.28 8.16 5.73 8.21 6.5-8.5 6.5-85 Tempt (0C) 27.2 27.4 26.3 27.8 35 35 EC (us/cm) 11620 10646 93.2 11268 200 TDS (mg/L) 58.00 53.21 46.6 56.34 500 500 DO (mg/L) 0.9 0.4 2.2 0.2 8-10 10 BOD (mg/L) 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.03 10 3 COD (mg/L) 0.00 0.003 2.0 0.000 40 - Hardness (mg/L) 280.0 269.4 12.2 271.2 - - NO 3  (mg/L) 3.216 3.200 4.958 3.781 10 10 PO 4  (mg/L) 0.009 0.004 0.000 0.004 2 2 SO 4 (mg/L) 188.8 186.2 3.722 194.3 250 250 NH 4 (mg/L) 0.018 0.014 0.002 0.014 30 Na (mgL) 710.0 690.1 14.80 686.2 200 200 CL (mg/L) 1900 1840 26.00 1821 600 600 Turbidity (mg/L) 878 846 2 949 5.0 5.0 Mg (mg/L) 370.0 486.8 4.340 394.1 50 50    77  | Eteng et al.    Physico-chemical parameters of selected surface water samples The physico-chemical parameters obtained across selected surface water around landfill areas are shown in Table 2. The Table shows that the pH level is alkaline with pH values ranging from 5.73 to 8.28. The pH value is high on station 1 and on station 3. This implies that the pH level of the stream may not affect the metal solubility and hardness of the water. A river with high alkalinity levels according to Ipeaiyeda & Onianwa (2011) will  be able to supply adequate amounts of carbonate,  bicarbonate and hydroxide ions in solution to bind up free protons and metals. Increase in alkalinity level means the surface water contains elevated levels of dissolved solids. The pH values obtained across the river body are above WHO and FEPA maximum tolerable level of 8.5 respectively. The level of temperature ranges from 26.3 to 27.8 0 C  with the station having the highest value of 27.8 0 C (Table 2). These concentrations however are normal for aquatic lives, and have minimal effects on acidity (Ewa et al.,  2011). Table 3. Zero-order correlation matrix of the concentration of parameters. pH Tempt EC TDS DO BOD COD Hard NO 3  PO 4  SO 4  NH 4  Na CL Turb Mg pH 1 Tempt .912 1 EC .999* .912 1 TDS .933 .820 .945 1 DO -.934 -.986 +  -.929 -.796 1 BOD .407 .423 .374 .052 -.553 1 COD -.999* -.920 .997* -.917 .945 -.439 1 Hard .999* .910 .999* .930 -.934 415 -.999* 1 NO 3  -.945 -.748 -.938 -.843 .817 -.504 .945 -.948 1 PO 4  .791 .517 .803 .900 -.525 -.060 -.769 .791 -.827 1 SO 4  .999* .930 .998* .925 -.950 .422 -.999* .999* -.933 .764 1 NH 4  .971 .804 .975 +  .966 +  -.824 .254 -.962 +  .971 +  -.952 +  .914 .960 +  1 Na .999* .909 .998* .926 -.935 .424 -.999* .999* -.950 +  .788 .998* .970 +  1 CL .999* .906 .998* .927 -.932 .423 -.999* .999* -.952 +  .791 .998* .971 +  .999* 1 Turb .995* .946 .996* .932 -.956 +  .390 -.995* .995* -.910 .752 .998* .952 +  .994* .993* 1 Mg .962 .894 .952 +  .800 -.952 +  .640 -.917 +  .964 +  -.945 .647 .966 +  .892 .967 +  .967 +  .953 +  1 FC .559 .192 .547 .477 -.312 .394 -.553 .566 -.794 .727 .525 .661 .571 .576 .477 .586 TC .792 .517 .778 .653 -.628 .576 -.793 .798 -.947 .753 .771 .824 .802 .806 .732 .837 *Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) + Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) Table 4.  ANOVA result.   Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 9860758.264 3 3286919.421 .639* .592  Within Groups 3.497E8 68 5143086.606 Total 3.596E8 71 *Difference between means is insignificant at 5% significant level (2tailed) . The temperature value obtained for this study corroborates those of Akan et al  ., (2010), Saidu and Musa (2012) of 26 to 29 0 C. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) is high on station 3 with a  value of 2.2 mg/L and low on station 4 with value of 0.2 mg/L. (Table 2). DO measure the degree of pollution by organic matter, the destructive of organic substances as well as the self-purification capacity of the water body. The depletion of DO on station 4 may be attributed to the huge amount of
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