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  Copyright © UN Women 2012Published in IndiaAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission. Editorial Inputs by: Govind Kelkar, Leena Patel, Suhela Khan, UN WomenCover photo: Ashutosh NegiCover design: FACET Design, New DelhiLayout and design: Leena Patel, UN Women/Roots Advertising ServicesPrinted by: Roots Advertising ServicesUN WomenSouth Asia Sub Regional Office,19A, Rajdoot Marg, ChanakyapuriNew Delhi – 110021, INDIAVoice: +91-11-26119128/20/24/29www.unwomensouthasia.org About the author Dr. Naresh C. Saxena was a career civil servant in Government of India (GOI). He worked as Secretary, Planning Commission (1999-2002), Secretary, Rural Development (1997-99), GOI, and Head of the National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie (1993-96), where he also served in number two position during 1976-80. He has chaired several government committees, such as on ‘Women’s Land Rights’, ‘Identification of BPL families’, ‘Implementation of Forest Rights Act’ and ‘Bauxite Mining in Orissa’.Dr. Saxena was Visiting Professor for six years on Forestry to the Regional Community Forestry Training Centre (RECOFTC), Bangkok during 1993-98. He did his Doctorate in Forestry from the Oxford University in 1992. He was awarded honorary Ph.D from the University of East Anglia (UK) in 2006. Dr. Saxena is a member on the Editorial Board, Development Policy Review, London, International Forestry Review, Oxford, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Stockholm. He was a Director on the ADB Institute, Tokyo from 2002-2004. He has also published several acclaimed books. Currently on behalf of the Supreme Court of India, Dr. Saxena monitors hunger based programmes in India. He is also a member of the National Advisory Council chaired by Ms. Sonia Gandhi.  WOMEN,IN RURAL INDIA Land and Agriculture By N C Saxena  WOMEN, LAND AND AGRICULTURE IN RURAL INDIA 2   Photo Credit: UN Women/Gaganjit Singh Chandok   WOMEN, LAND AND AGRICULTURE IN RURAL INDIA 3 From Dreams to Reality CONTENTS 1. Executive Summary .....................................................................................................................................................4 2. The Present Scenario ..................................................................................................................................................6   2.1 Women’s unrecognized workload ..................................................................................................................6 2.2 Rural women workers in agriculture .............................................................................................................8 2.3 Inter-regional differences & migration ......................................................................................................11 2.4 Girl child labour ..................................................................................................................................................14 2.5 Wages ....................................................................................................................................................................15 2.6 Women’s role in livestock management and marketing systems....................................................16 2.7 Role of women in water management ......................................................................................................19 2.8 Fisheries ................................................................................................................................................................22 3. Interventions ...............................................................................................................................................................23 3.1 Changes in the agriculture scenario in India in the last three decades .........................................24 3.1.1 Impact of agricultural stagnation on women ............................................................................28 3.2 Centrally sponsored schemes (CSS) in agriculture ................................................................................28 3.3 Women’s self-help groups ..............................................................................................................................31 3.3.1 Issues needing attention ...................................................................................................................32 3.4 Land rights of women......................................................................................................................................34 3.4.1 Land laws in post-Independent India ...........................................................................................34 3.4.2 Pattas in favour of women or their groups .................................................................................36 3.4.3 Tenurial laws for agricultural land ..................................................................................................38 3.4.4 Changes in 2005 ...................................................................................................................................39 3.5 Neglect of women’s concerns in the 12th Plan Approach Paper .....................................................42 3.6 Food and nutritional security........................................................................................................................43 4. Summary of recommendations ..........................................................................................................................48 5. References ....................................................................................................................................................................53
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