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# D I F

D I F. Lesson 01: The Bit. What is This?. Binary Code is Made of Binary Digits. The Bit Short for “Binary Digit” The basic unit of information storage and communication. Only has two states…. A Bit Only has Two States. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbBqPkdheFg&amp;feature=related

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#### A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal -Included in the International Serial Directories Assessment of Rainfall Variation and Trends in Calabar for the period 1982-2011

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D I FLesson 01:The BitWhat is This?Binary Code is Made of Binary DigitsThe Bit
• Short for “Binary Digit”
• The basic unit of information storage and communication.
• Only has two states…
• A Bit Only has Two Stateshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbBqPkdheFg&feature=relatedFrom the Disney Movie TronExamples of Bits0 / 1True / FalseYes / NoHeads / Tails+ / -Pass / FailCan you find the bit on your laptop?I/O Switch(on / off Switch)How Bits String Together
• Bits can represent numbers in Base-2.
• We work in a Base-10 Number System:
• We count from 0 to 9 in the “ones” place.
• Go back to zero in the ones place and put a “1” in front of it in the tens place to make “10”
• Repeat 0 to 9 in ones place, and add one to tens place.
• What happens when we add 1 to a number with a 9 in the ones place and 9 in the tens place?
• Base-10Binary is Base-2Count from 0 to 1 in the ones place, reset to zero and put a 1 in front of it in the twos place to make 10.Binary Place ValuesThere are 10 types of people in the world: those who understand binary and those who don’t.Counting in BinaryWe’ve seen 1, 2, 4, and 8 in binary, but how do we show 3, 5, 6, and 7?Deciphering Binary NumbersCount in Binary on Your HandsHow many numbers can we represent using both hands?Other Base Number SystemsQuaternary: Base 4{1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20…}Octal: Base 8{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13…}Duodecimal: Base 12{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, 10, 11, 12…}Hexadecimal: Base 16{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, 10, 11, 12…}Sexagesimal: Base 60So why do we use Base-10?Q: Why do Geeks get Halloween and Christmas confused?A: Because 25 DEC = 31 OCTThe Bit is the Basic Unit of Information Storage and Communication Model of a Helium AtomBits aren’t the atoms of the Information Technology Universe, and they aren’t the Protons and Neutrons of the IT Universe. Bits are the quarks and electrons of the IT Universe.The Byte1 Byte = 8 Bits
• On your desktop: Right Click and select “New > Text Document”
• Name it “byte.txt”, Open it and type a single character in it.
• Save it (CTRL + S). Close it (ALT + F, X).
• Right click on the file, select “Properties”.
• What is the size of the file?
• Try adding another character to the file and saving it.
• Making Letters Out of BytesAmerican Standard Code for Information InterchangeASCIIThere is also Unicode Standard (UTF-8)The Kilobyte (KB)1 Kilobyte = 1000 BytesExamples of Files Measured in Kilobytes:
• Images (JPG, GIF, BMP).
• Text files larger than 1000 characters
• Word Processor documents (DOC, PPT, PDF).
• The Megabyte (MB)1 Megabyte = 1000 KilobytesExamples of Files Measured in Megabytes:
• Song files (MP3)
• Commercials or Music Videos (MPG, MOV)
• Books / Novels (PDF, DOC, TXT)
• When Windows shows a file in KB with a comma, everything to the left of the comma is the MB (ie. 123,456 KB = 123.456 MB)The Gigabyte (GB)1 Gigabyte = 1,000 Megabytes
• Open “My Computer”.
• Right click on the “C:” drive, select “Properties”.
• What is the capacity of your disk? How much space is used? How much is free?
• Note the value is expressed in bytes too.
• Examples of Files in GB: DVD Movies, Video GamesThe Terabyte (TB)1 Terabyte = 1,000 GigabytesOne Library of Congress = 20 TerabytesNew Hard Drives are Being measured in TB too.The Petabyte (PB)1 Petabyte = 1,000 TerabytesExamples of Data Mesured in Petabytes:
• World of Warcraft (1.3 PB)
• Facebook (1.5 PB for 10 Billion User Photos)
• Internet (Google processes 10 PB a Day)
• Human Race’s Entire Written Works from the beginning of recorded history (50 Petabytes)
• The Exabyte (EB)1 Exabyte = 1,000 PetabytesThe Sum of All Human-Produced Information, Including Text, Audio, and Video is about 12 Exabytes of DataPowers of 10B, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EBhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wm0bIuAVmOA“Power of 10” by Charles and Ray Eames 1977
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