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Community Empowerment through Entrepreneurial Training; Ensuring Sustainable Community Economic Development in Uganda

This study was done among market vendors at Gaba, a suburb located at the shores of Lake Victoria, Uganda. The study was intended to equip the market vendors with managerial and entrepreneurial skills to enable them improve their productivity. The
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  Community Empowerment through Entrepreneurial Training;Ensuring Sustainable Community Economic Development in Uganda By Dr. Amaal Kinene Nsereko (amaal.kinene@kiu.ac.ug)and Dr. Wasajja James Kiwanuka, P.D ( james.wasajja@kiu.ac.ug) Kampala International University   Abstract !is s"udy was done among marke" #endors a" $a%a, a su%ur% loca"ed a" "e sores o& 'akeic"oria, ganda. !e s"udy was in"ended "o e*ui+ "e marke" #endors wi" managerial anden"re+reneurial skills "o ena%le "em im+ro#e "eir +roduc"i#i"y. !e s"udy was +enomenological in na"ure and "e #oice o& "e +ar"ici+an"s was cen"ral. A miedme"od a++roac was u"ilised were%y "es"s, and-on +rojec"s and indi#idual in"er#iews werecarried ou" wi" "e iden"i&ied researc grou+. !e &indings o& "e s"udy indica"ed "a" "ere wass"rong necessi"y "o "rain or e*ui+ +eo+le in mall and /edium Businesses 0n"er+rises (/0s)wi" en"re+reneursi+ skills. 1ecommenda"ions made in "is s"udy include2 3m+lore %o" $o#ernmen" and Non- $o#ernmen"al4rgani5a"ions and indi#iduals "o ge" in#ol#ed and su++or" "is +rogram6 "a" uni#ersi"ies andiger ins"i"u"ions o& learning +u" +olicies and +rac"ices in +lace in order "o su++or" "e older coor" o& s"uden"s Key Terms; Small and edium !usiness Enterprises" SE" ar#et $endors" Suitabledevelopment Introduction !is +a+er also rela"es "o s"udies analy5ing "e e&&ec"i#eness o& en"re+reneursi+-su++or" in"er#en"ionsin de#elo+ing coun"ries. 0n"re+reneursi+ is a key %uilding %lock o& +roduc"i#i"y grow" (Baumol,789:), and a large sare o& "e la%or &orce in mos" de#elo+ing coun"ries is sel& em+loyed ($ollin, ;<<;6Banerjee and Du&lo, ;<<:). Pre#ious s"udies o&"en &ocus on "e ac"i#a"ion o& low +roduc"i#i"y workers,"e inac"i#e, or "e unem+loyed. =or eam+le, Almeida and $alasso (;<7<) or De /el e" al. (;<7<)analy5e "e e&&ec"s o& %usiness "raining on a sam+le o& +o"en"ial %usiness owners, wile Klinger andc>ndeln (;<77) s"udy en"re+reneurs wi" eis"ing %usinesses o& a%ou" em+loyees. Almeida and$alasso (;<7<) sow "a" com%ining en"re+reneursi+ su++or" was e&&ec"i#e in increasing sel&-em+loymen", +ar"icularly &or women wi" rela"ed la%or marke" e+erience0#alua"ions o& en"re+reneursi+-su++or" in"er#en"ions suc as %usiness "raining and gran"s a#e sown "a" "ey can %e e&&ec"i#e in &os"ering sel&-em+loymen" and earnings. ?owe#er, mos" o& "e e#idence "o da"e as&ocused on ei"er eis"ing %usiness or on indi#iduals "a" are low skilled (/cKen5ie and Woodru&&,;<7;). 8 th  Internaonal Conference on Management Research, Lahore. Pakistan  Kam+ala ni#ersi"y organi5ed "is en"re+reneur "raining "o o&&er "rans&orma"ional "raining +rogramsdesign "o ins+ire ma"ure +eo+le "o %ecome inno#a"i#e and accoun"a%le. We in"roduce +ar"ici+an"s "o "een"re+reneurial mindse" and +ro#ide ands-on "raining in ig im+ac" en"reneursi+. Par"ici+an"sde#elo+ed crea"i#e ca+aci"y, en"re+reneurial con&idence, and ac*uire "e necessary skills "o %uildscala%le s"ar"u+s "a" sol#e real +ro%lems. !e "rainings s"imula"ed li&e in small en"er+rises %ycallenging +ar"ici+an"s "o learn new modes o& "eam- %ased +ro%lem sol#ing, idea"ion, and %usinessmodel de#elo+men" "o crea"e a working &ounda"ion &or a #ia%le en"er+rise. !ac#ground !e na"ure o& %usiness &ound a" $a%a /arke", Kam+ala are majorly small and medium en"er+risesin#ol#ing ma"ure +eo+le wo engage in "e &is %usiness, o+era"e s"alls in a #ery %usy lakeside marke"and a""ends "o so+s on %o" re"ail and wolesale %asis. mall and /edium 0n"er+rises (/0s) areim+or"an" "o economic grow" and signi&ican"ly essen"ial "o genera"e +ro&i", increase sales and +ro#idere"urn on in#es"men" "o "e owners o& /0s. 3n de#elo+ing coun"ries, "e +rimary %arrier "o economicgrow" is o&"en no" so muc wi" a scarci"y o& ca+i"al, la%or or land, %u" i" is "e scarci"y o& "e dynamicen"re+reneurs "a" can %ring "e marke"s and mecanisms "a" can &acili"a"e "e economic grow"(ni"ed Na"ions De#elo+men" Program, 7888). 0n"re+reneurial ac"i#i"y is "e key "o grow" and +ros+eri"y in many coun"ries. 0n"re+reneursi+ de#elo+men" is "e key &ac"or in economic de#elo+men"(?ar+er, ;<<). 0n"re+reneursi+ as %een considered as "e %ack%one o& economic de#elo+men". 3" as %een welles"a%lised "a" "e le#el o& economic grow" o& a region "o a large e"en", de+ends on "e le#el o& en"re+reneurial ac"i#i"ies in "e region. 3" is argued "a" "e en"re+reneurs can %e crea"ed and nur"ured"roug a++ro+ria"e in"er#en"ions in "e &orm o& en"re+reneursi+ de#elo+men" +rograms (3ndia0n"re+reneursi+ /o#emen" ;<<:). !e Asian Produc"i#i"y 4rgani5a"ion (;<<) in i"s re+or" on 0n"re+reneursi+ de#elo+men" &or com+e"i"i#e small and medium en"er+rises men"ioned "a" en"re+reneursi+ "raining and educa"ion isregarding knowledge-%ased uman ca+i"al in#es"men" as a +rere*uisi"e &or sus"ained economic grow"and +roduc"i#i"y o& en"er+rises. A &irms com+e"i"i#e ad#an"age s"ems &rom i"s en"re+reneurialca+a%ili"ies, managemen" a%ili"ies and "ecnical know-ow and i"s ada+"a%ili"y "o "e in"ernal ande"ernal %usiness en#ironmen". Basic educa"ion and con"inuing in#es"men" in on-"e-jo%, &or de#elo+ing en"re+reneurial skills is "ere&ore im+or"an". 0n"re+reneursi+ skills are #ery im+or"an" "o 8 th  Internaonal Conference on Management Research, Lahore. Pakistan  "e sur#i#al and grow" o& /0s. 0n"re+reneurial de#elo+men" as %een concei#ed %y successi#ego#ernmen"s as a +rogram o& ac"i#i"ies "o enance "e knowledge, skill, %ea#ior and a""i"udes o& indi#idual and grou+s "o assume "e role o& en"re+reneurs. kill is knowledge demons"ra"ed %y ac"ions or "e a%ili"y "o +er&orm in a cer"ain way. kills areac*uired "roug "raining and educa"ion (Perks C mi", ;<<9). 0duca"ion and "raining crea"ecircums"ances in wic a +erson can ac*uire and a++ly "e skill "a" will el+ imer acie#e "eo%jec"i#e o& "e %usiness. kills de#elo+men" can %e acie#ed "roug "raining and educa"ion (0rasmus,;<<E). !e di&&erence %e"ween educa"ion and "raining is "a" educa"ion +re+ares "e indi#idual &or li&ewile "raining +re+ares im or er "o +er&orm s+eci&ic "asks. 3n "is s"udy, "e &ocus was on skillsde#elo+men" "roug "raining. 'and5ani (;<<F) argues "a" canging circums"ances re*uire "a" small %usiness managersowners recei#e regular "raining in order "o reduce &ailure ra"es, increase +ro&i"s andacie#e grow". !is is necessary %ecause mos" small %usiness owners s"ar" "eir %usinesses wi"ou"a++ro+ria"e "raining. /any /0s in ganda su&&er &rom lack o& "ecnical and %usiness skills. /0s "emsel#es iden"i&y a#arie"y o& skills ga+s in areas including 3G!, "ecnical and indus"rial knowledge, communica"ion skills,social and in"er+ersonal skills, &inance, accoun"ing and managemen" on "o+ o& %asic li"eracy skills.!ere is also limi"ed inno#a"ion and com+e"i"i#eness in "e /0 sec"or caused %y a lack o& "ecnicaland managerial skill. !e uns"ruc"ured en#ironmen" in wic /0s o+era"e and "eir ina%ili"y "o %eo+en "o new or inno#a"i#e ideas +resen"s a major callenge "o "e de#elo+men" o& "e /0 sec"or (/inis"ry o& =inance and 0conomic Planning, ;<7<). %ITE&ATU&E De'inition o' Key terms in Entrepreneurship S#ills Development Entrepreneur( !e word H0n"re+reneurI is deri#ed &rom "e =renc #er% en"re+rendre. !is means"o under"ake. !e word en"re+reneur means one wo "akes "e risk o& s"ar"ing a new organi5a"ion or in"roducing a new idea, +roduc" or ser#ice "o socie"y. (?isric and Pe"ers, ;<<;). ?orn%y (;<<9) alsode&ined an en"re+reneur as a +erson wo makes money %y s"ar"ing or running %usinesses, es+eciallywen "is in#ol#es "aking &inancial risks. ?owe#er "o ane and enka"araman (;<7<), an en"re+reneur,is Hone wo under"akes inno#a"ions, &inances and dis+lays %usiness in an e&&or" "o "rans&orminno#a"ions in"o economic goods. !is may resul" in new organi5a"ions or may %e +ar" o& re#i"ali5ingma"ure organi5a"ions in res+onse "o a +ercei#ed o++or"uni"y. 8 th  Internaonal Conference on Management Research, Lahore. Pakistan  Entrepreneurship Development( A%ianga (;<7<) de&ined de#elo+men" as "e ac" or +rocess o& grow", +rogress and im+ro#emen" wi"in a +ysical se""ing. ?orn%y (;<<9) similarly de&inedde#elo+men" as "e gradual grow" o& some"ing so "a" i" %ecomes more ad#anced and s"ronger. "is#aries slig"ly &rom wa" ni"ed Na"ions De#elo+men" Program (NDP 1e+or" 7888) de&ineden"re+reneursi+ de#elo+men"6 as re&erring "o "e +rocess o& enancing en"re+reneurial skills andknowledge "roug s"ruc"ured "raining and ins"i"u"ion %uilding +rograms. 0n"re+reneursi+de#elo+men" aims "o enlarge "e %ase o& en"re+reneurs in order "o as"en "e +ace a" wic new#en"ures are crea"ed. !is accelera"es em+loymen" genera"ion and economic de#elo+men".!e carac"eris"ics o& a success&ul en"re+reneur include2 "oroug unders"anding o& "e indus"ry, goodleadersi+ skills, &oresig" on demand and su++ly canges and "e willingness "o ac" on suc risky&oresig"s. cum+e"ers inno#a"ion "eory o& en"re+reneursi+ ci"ed %y cudder (;<77) e+lains "a" anen"re+reneur is one a#ing "ree major carac"eris"ics2 inno#a"ion, &oresig", and crea"i#i"y.0n"re+reneursi+ "akes +lace wen "e en"re+reneur crea"es a new +roduc", in"roduces a new way "omake a +roduc", disco#ers a new marke" &or a +roduc", &inds a new source o& raw ma"erial, &inds newway o& making "ings or organi5a"ion. cum+e"ers inno#a"ion "eory owe#er ignores "een"re+reneurs risk "aking a%ili"y and organi5a"ional skills, and +lace undue im+or"ance on inno#a"ion. arious au"ors a#e come u+ wi" di&&eren" skills "a" an en"re+reneur mus" a#e so "a" e can %e a%le"o e+and is en"er+rise or %usiness success, among "ose #arious "rai"s, "e researcers &ocused on"ree wic is rela"ed "o wa" "ey &ound ou" during "e s"udy2 a%ili"y "o recogni5e o++or"uni"y6communica"ion skills and inno#a"i#e skills. Ability to recogni)e opportunity 2 0n"re+reneurs recogni5e o++or"uni"ies were "ey are and "eyu"ili5e "em %y +roducing +roduc"s or ser#ices "a" will &ill "e #acuum iden"i&ied. 0n"re+reneurs o&"ensee "ings in a olis"ic sense6 "ey can see "e H%ig +ic"ureI wen o"ers see only "e +ar"s. !is +rocess, known as scanning "e en#ironmen", allows "e en"re+reneur "o see "e en"ire %usinessen#ironmen" and "e indus"ry and el+s "o &ormula"e "e larger +ic"ure o& "e %usiness ac"i#i"y.0n"re+reneurs "ry "eir and on o++or"uni"ies "a" are %y-+assed %y o"ers6 "ese o++or"uni"ies mayinclude2 mee"ing "e demand "a" is no" curren"ly me", +using u+ a +roduc" "a" is muc %e""er "anwa" is curren"ly in "e marke", sol#ing a +ro%lem or annoyance "a" consumers a#e ('am%ing CKuel, ;<<). 8 th  Internaonal Conference on Management Research, Lahore. Pakistan  Communication s#ills;  Due "o "e &ac" "a" "e majori"y o& "e #endors ne#er ad enoug or e#en anyelemen"ary or iger educa"ion, "ey lack "e %asic li"eracy and communica"ion skills. 4n "e lack o& communica"ion skills %e"ween "e su++lier and "e cus"omer, 'ind (;<<E) iglig"s "e im+or"ance o& lis"ening "o "e cus"omer re*uiremen"s in order "o unders"and "eir e+ec"ed and +ercei#ed %ene&i" o& "e +roduc". Innovative s#ills;  !ere was need &or en&orcing +rac"ical inno#a"i#e skills among "e +ar"ici+an"s "o"rain "em "o %ecome inno#a"i#e in "eir small en"er+rises. !ese are usually a com%ina"ion o& cogni"i#eskills suc as "e a%ili"y "o "ink crea"i#ely and cri"ically6 %ea#ioral skills suc as "e a%ili"y "o sol#e +ro%lems. 4ne o& "e reasons en"re+reneurs are success&ul is "a" "ey are imagina"i#e, inno#a"i#e andcan en#iron al"erna"i#e scenarios. !arriers SE*s +rowth , A +lobal Conte-t !ere is a general worldwide lack o& inno#a"ion among en"re+reneurs. 3nno#a"ion +lays a crucial role innowadays %usiness. 3" is regarded as a key carac"eris"ic o& /0s, mainly due "o "e a""i"ude o& "emanager. 3nno#a"i#e en"er+rises are a%le "o res+ond wi"in "e %ounds o& "e knowledge a%ou" eis"ing +roduc"s or ser#ices "o canges re*uired %y "e cus"omer wi"in "eir nice marke". ('e#y and Powell;<<E).!e im+ac"s o& glo%ali5a"ion a#e +ressured /0s "o grea"er demands. 3nno#a"ion relies on %ringing "oge"er di&&eren" "y+es o& researc and u"ili5ing "is knowledge "o design new +roduc"s,(/orrison, ;<<9). Asian Produc"i#i"y 4rgani5a"ion (AP4) (;<<7) iglig"s "e lack o& skilled la%or as one o& "e mos"crucial o%s"acles &or /0s, "us, i" is di&&icul" &or "em "o a""rac" igly educa"ed workers and re"ainskilled em+loyees (ig la%or "urno#er) since "ey +re&er "o work &or large 0n"er+rises cale "a" cano&&er iger salary, jo% securi"y and career +ossi%ili"ies. According "o Brus, Geru, and Black%urn(;<<8) marke"ing is ano"er o%s"acle &or com+anies "o grow since many %usinesses con&ron" callengeses"a%lising e&&ec"i#e dis"ri%u"ion cannels, communica"ing +roduc" &ea"ures, +ricing +roduc"s andser#ices in an a""rac"i#e way, im+lemen"ing sales and marke"ing e&&or"s "o win and re"ain cus"omers andunder"aking cons"an" +roduc" de#elo+men" in order "o sus"ain sales. /0s "end "o a#e low +roduc"i#i"y and "ey are weak in "erms o& com+e"i"ion wic is "e resul" o& using less ad#anced "ecnology, no" maimi5ing macinery u"ili"y and no" im+ro#ing in "ecnology due"o "e limi"a"ion o& &unding and mos" /0s are mainly users o& "ecnology, no" ada+"ors o& "ecnology(!e 4&&ice o& mall and /edium 0n"er+rises Promo"ion,;<<). /any managers are no" aware o&  8 th  Internaonal Conference on Management Research, Lahore. Pakistan
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