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A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE TO GENERATE ODD ORDER MAGIC SQUARES FOR ANY SEQUENCE OF CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS

A magic square of order is a square array of numbers consisting of the distinct positive integers {1, 2, 3, ..., } arranged such that the sum of the 'n' numbers in any horizontal, vertical, main diagonal and anti-diagonal line is always the
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   International Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2111 (Online)  An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/jpms.htm 2018 Vol. 8 (1) January-March, pp. 1-17/Kalaimaran  Research Article   Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)  1 A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE TO GENERATE ODD ORDER MAGIC SQUARES FOR ANY SEQUENCE OF CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS *Ara. Kalaimaran Civil Engineering Division, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai-20, Tamil Nadu, India *Author for Correspondence: klmaran@yahoo.com ABSTRACT A magic square of order is a square array of numbers consisting of the distinct positive integers {1, 2, 3, ..., } arranged such that the sum of the ‘n’ numbers in any horizontal, vertical, main  diagonal and anti-diagonal line is always the same number. The unique normal square of order three was known to the ancient Chinese, who called it the Lo Shu. A version of the order-4 magic square with the numbers 15 and 14 in adjacent middle columns in the bottom row is called Dürer's magic square.  INTRODUCTION Magic squares (Weisstein Eric, 2003) have a long history, dating back to at least 650 BC in China. At various times they have acquired magical or mythical significance, and have appeared as symbols in works of art. In modern times they have been generalized a number of ways, including using extra or different constraints, multiplying instead of adding cells, using alternate shapes or more than two dimensions, and replacing numbers with shapes and addition with geometric operations. There are many ways to construct magic squares, but the standard (and most simple) way is to follow certain configurations/formulas which generate regular patterns. Magic squares exist for all values of n , with only one exception: it is impossible to construct a magic square of order 2. If all the diagonals including those obtained by "wrapping around" the edges-of a magic square sum to the same magic constant  , the square is said to be a panmagic square (Stephen Wolfram, no date). Order of Magic square Magic Constant (m) for magic square starting with unity No. of possible magic square 15 1 34 880 65 (2,42,000) 275305224 111 175 unknown -- -- -- -- -- -- The 880 squares of order four were enumerated by Frénicle de Bessy in 1693, and are illustrated in Berlekamp et al. (1982, pp. 778-783). The number of 5 x 5 magic squares was computed by R. Schroeppel in 1973. The number of 6 x 6 squares is not known, but Pinn and Wieczerkowski (1998) estimated it to be using Monte Carlo simulation and methods from statistical mechanics. Methods for enumerating magic squares are discussed by Berlekamp et al. (1982) and on the Math Pages website.   International Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2111 (Online)  An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/jpms.htm 2018 Vol. 8 (1) January-March, pp. 1-17/Kalaimaran  Research Article   Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)  2 Magic squares were known to Islamic mathematicians in Arabia as early as the seventh century. They may have learned about them when the Arabs came into contact with Indian culture and learned Indian astronomy and mathematics. The 3×3 magic square has been a part of rituals in India since Vedic times, and still is today. The Ganesh yantra is a 3×3 magic square. There is a well-known 10th-century 4×4 magic square on display in the Parshvanath temple in Khajuraho,  Greek Byzantine scholar Manuel Moschopoulos wrote a mathematical treatise on the subject of magic squares, leaving out the mysticism of his predecessors. Moschopoulos was essentially unknown to the Latin west. He was not, either, the first Westerner to have written on magic squares. There are many ways to construct magic squares, but the standard (and most simple) way is to follow certain configurations/formulas which generate regular patterns. Magic squares exist for all values of n , with only one exception: it is impossible to construct a magic square of order 2. Magic squares can be classified into three types: odd, doubly even ( n  divisible by four) and singly even ( n  even, but not divisible by four). Odd and doubly even magic squares are easy to generate; the construction of singly even magic squares is more difficult but several methods exist, including the LUX method for magic squares (due to John Horton Conway) and the Strachey method for magic squares.  In the 19th century, Édouard Lucas devised the general formula for order 3 magic squares. A method for constructing magic squares of odd order was published by the French diplomat de la Loubère in his book, A new historical relation of the kingdom of Siam (Du Royaume de Siam, 1693), in the chapter entitled. The problem of the magical square according to the Indians.   A magic square can be constructed using genetic algorithms. Algorithms tend to only generate magic squares of a certain type or classification, making counting all possible magic squares quite difficult. Traditional counting methods have proven unsuccessful, statistical analysis using the Monte Carlo method has been applied. The basic principle applied to magic squares is to randomly generate matrices of elements 1 to n 2  and check if the result is a magic square. The probability that a randomly generated matrix of numbers is a magic square is then used to approximate the number of magic squares. On October 9, 2014 the post office of  Macao in the People's Republic of China issued a series of stamps based on magic squares. In this research article the simple techniques to develop magic squares for order of odd numbers is explained in detail. TYPES OF MAGIC SQUARES 1. Addition-multiplication magic square An addition-multiplication square is a square of integers that is simultaneously a magic square and multiplication magic square.  2. Alphamagic square A magic square for which the number of letters in the word for each number generates another magic square. 3. Antimagic square An antimagic square is an array of integers from 1 to such that each row, column, and main diagonal produces a different sum such that these sums form a sequence of consecutive integers. It is therefore a special case of a heterosquare. It was defined by Lindon (1962) and appeared in Madachy's collection of puzzles (Madachy 1979, p. 103), srcinally published in 1966 4. Associative magic square An associative magic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date) is a magic square for which every pair of numbers symmetrically opposite to the centre sum up to the same value.   International Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2111 (Online)  An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/jpms.htm 2018 Vol. 8 (1) January-March, pp. 1-17/Kalaimaran  Research Article   Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)  3 5. Bimagic square If replacing each number by its square in a magic square produces another magic square, the square is said to be a bimagic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date). Bimagic squares are also called doubly magic squares, and are 2-multimagic squares. Lucas (1891) and later Hendricks (1998). 6. Complete magic square These are Magic squares (Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Presentatie Humaniora, No date) in which the sum of the numbers on the pan-diagonals is also the same as the sum of the numbers on each line, column or diagonal. Pan-diagonals are lines parallel to the diagonal. 7. Ideal Magic square An ideal Magic square formed from a sequence of consecutive integers in which the sum of each row, each column, two diagonals and several possible symmetrically added ‘n’ elements is equal to the magic constant. 8. Most Perfect Magic Square A most-perfect magic square (Harvey D. Heinz, 2010) of order n  is a magic square containing the numbers 1 to n 2  with two additional properties: 1.   Each 2×2 sub-square sums to 2 s , where s  = n 2  + 1. 2.   All pairs of integer’s distant n  /2 along a (major) diagonal sum to s . 9. Multimagic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date)   A magic square is said to be p-multimagic if the square formed by replacing each element by its kth power for is also magic. A 2-multimagic square is called bimagic, a 3-multimagic square is called trimagic, a 4-multimagic square is called tetramagic, a 5-multimagic square is called pentamagic,  and so on. 10. Multiplication magic square A square which is magic under multiplication instead of addition (the operation used to define a conventional magic square) is called a multiplication magic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date). Unlike (normal) magic squares, the entries for an th order multiplicative magic square are not required to be consecutive. 11. Normal/Ordinary/Diagonally magic square The sum of the ‘n’ numbers in any horizontal, vertical, or main  diagonal line is always the same magic constant. 12. Panmagic square A Pan diagonal magic square or panmagic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date) (also diabolic square, diabolical square or diabolical magic square) is a magic square with the additional property that the broken diagonals, i.e. the diagonals that wrap round at the edges of the square, also add up to the magic constant. 13. Semi magic square A semi magic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date) is a square that fails to be a magic square only because one or both of the main diagonal sums do not equal the magic constant (Kraitchik 1942, p. 143). 14. Trimagic square If replacing each number by its square or cube in a magic square produces another magic square, the square is said to be a tri-magic square (Stephen Wolfram, No date). Tri-magic squares are also called trebly magic squares and are 3-multimagic squares.  15. Ultra-super Magic squares An ultra-super Magic square (Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Presentatie Humaniora, No date) is a Magic square that is complete and symmetrical. Ultra-super Magic squares of order 4 don' t exist. There are only 16 different ultra-super Magic squares of order 5.   International Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2111 (Online)  An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/jpms.htm 2018 Vol. 8 (1) January-March, pp. 1-17/Kalaimaran  Research Article   Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)  4 METHODOLOGY A New Techniques for Generating Magic Squares of order Odd Numbers We can categorize into two viz. (i) Magic squares with order of odd number and (ii) Magic squares with order of even number. In this paper the techniques to generate Magic squares of order of odd number from a sequence of consecutive integers is only described. Method to generate magic squares of order of odd numbers Magic square of order 3 x 3 To form an Ideal Magic square of order from a sequence of consecutive integers i.e. numbers taken from 1 to 9. Referring figures 1 to 6 of squares, we can understand the method of forming ideal magic square.   1. Simple number square   2. Diamond core 3. Voided Diamond core   02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 4. Consolidating Diamond core 5. Consolidated diamond 6. Magic square The following are the possible sum of rows/columns/diagonal/symmetrical 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08 02 07 06 09 05 01 04 03 08   International Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2111 (Online)  An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/jpms.htm 2018 Vol. 8 (1) January-March, pp. 1-17/Kalaimaran  Research Article   Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech)  5 In 3 x 3 magic square, maximum possible way to get sum of rows/columns/diagonals/any other symmetrical to get the magic constant is 8. There is only one magic square. Magic square of order 5 x 5 To form an Ideal Magic square of order 5 x 5 from a sequence of consecutive integers i.e. numbers taken from 1 to 25. Referring fig.1 to fig.6, we can understand the method of forming ideal magic square of . 1. Simple number square   2. Central core 3. Voided core 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23 4. Consolidating core 5. Consolidated core 6. Magic square The following are the possible sum of rows/columns/diagonal/symmetrical 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23 03 16 09 22 15 20 08 21 14 02 07 25 13 01 19 24 12 05 18 06 11 04 17 10 23
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