What are the respective strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native speakers as teachers of English as a foreign or second language? Discuss the differing perspectives on this question in the literature.

What are the respective strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native speakers as teachers of English as a foreign or second language? Discuss the differing perspectives on this question in the literature.
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  What are the respective strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native speakers as teachers of English as a foreign or second language? Discuss the differing perspectives on this question in the literature. LING !"#   I$$%E$ IN &''LIED LING%I$(I)$$(%DEN( N%*+E,# /0 N&*E# ,E+E))& 1I,1*&NW2,D )2%N(# 3 1   Native and non-native speaker teachers often display considerable differences in their approaches to teaching, as the routes used by the two groups in their paths to  becoming successful teachers are not the same. Native speaker (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) teachers use nglish differently and, therefore, teach differently. !ut do these differences carry any value "udgement# $hat is, is it true that, by virtue of having a  better command of the language, native teachers perform better in the classroom# %onversely, is it true that the more deficient the teacher is in the target language, the less efficient they will be# (&edgyes 1'' *+).$his essay will eamine and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native speaker nglish teachers by defining these concepts and eamining the  perceptions associated therein. fter analysing the advantages and disadvantages of both teaching groups, the essay will then determine whether the differences between native speaker and non-native nglish speaker teachers mean that linguists should focus on who  makes the better teacher rather than what   makes a better teacher./n the last few years there has been an ever-growing number of non-native speakers and learners of nglish in the world. s a result of these escalating demands in nglish instruction, the ma"ority of trained S020 teachers in the world are NNS teachers. $hese teachers are used to provide nglish instruction eclusively in 20 contets, but now are found occupying teaching positions in nglish-speaking countries as well. (%anagara"ah 334).5efining native and non-native teachers is a controversial issue from both a linguistic and sociolinguistic point of view. Some eperts argue that efforts to define native competence or native-like proficiency have yielded inconclusive results (Stern   1'6*), giving applied linguists another reason to claim not only that native and non-native speakers have e7ual rights in using language, but also that there is no use in setting up two separate categories (8ampton, 1''3). 5avies (1''1) further delved into 9native speaker: identity, and thus formulated the key 7uestion of whether a second language (0) learner can become a native speaker of the target language and concluded that 0 learners can become native speakers of the target language, and master the intuition, grammar, spontaneity, creativity, pragmatic control, and interpreting 7uality of 9born: native speakers.5efinitions are further complicated when attempting to define a native nglish speaker. ;hat about an /ndian for whom nglish was the language of school instruction and has been the language of professional communication ever since# <e does not fit into either the native- or the non-native-speaker slot. /ndeed, countries where nglish is a second language break the homogeneity of the nativenon-native division. (&edgyes 1'' *+3). vidence from case studies eists of individuals who could not easily be categorised as either native speakers or non-native speakers, as they themselves had  problems in stating whether they belonged to one group or another. (!rutt-=riffler > Samimy 331). $here are several cases of people who, due to the environment where they ac7uired a particular language, can hardly be classified as either NSs or NNSs of that language, as is the case of bilingual speakers, especially those in countries where nglish is a non-native variety such as <ong ?ong. /n such cases, we would have a NS of a 9non-native variety: (&oussu > 0lurda 336 *16). /t may be 7uite difficult to refer to all non-native speakers as though they belonged to a fairly homogeneous group, given the many and very diverse geographical, cultural and linguistic backgrounds they may bring *  with their non-native status./n the early nineties, &edgyes (1'') compared native and non-native nglish-speaking teachers, and stated that@ the ideal NS teacher is the one who has achieved a high degree of proficiency in the learners: mother tongueA@ the ideal NNS teacher is the one who 9has achieved near-native proficiency: in nglish (&edgyes 1'' *+6f.)./n a later discussion about NNS teachers: advantages and disadvantages, &edgyes (1''+) described si positive characteristics 1) $hey provide a good learner model to their studentsA   ) $hey can teach language strategies very effectivelyA *) $hey are able to provide more information about the language to their studentsA +) $hey understand the difficulties and needs of the studentsA 4) $hey are able to anticipate and predict language difficultiesA and) /n 20 settings, they can use the students: native language to their advantage. (&edgyes 1''+).   /f language competency were the only variable of teaching skill, a NS teacher would by definition be superior to their non-native colleague. /t would also follow that any native speaker, with or without 20 7ualifications, would be more effective than any non-native speaker. s this contradicts &edgyes:s findings one must assume that other variables of teaching skill that have a bearing on teaching practices eist. /t is certainly the case that variables such as eperience, age, se, aptitude, charisma, motivation, +  training, and so on play a decisive role in the teachinglearning process. s non-language-specific variables, they can apply to native and non-native teachers in e7ual measure (&edgyes 1''*+). &any students appreciate the value of NNSs and do in fact  prefer them to NSs in certain contets and for certain classroom tasks. $his provokes the need to analyse whether the discrepancies in their teaching behaviour are merely language related or whether such a distinction reveals further teaching discrepancies making one group more efficient than the other.Bne of the earliest reflections about the differences between native and non-native speaking 20S0 teachers was the importance of providing students with a 9real: model. $hese 9real: models speak the language of the students natively and have learned to speak nglish well, as opposed to the 9foreign: models (NSs), who do not share the cultural, social, and emotional eperiences of the students (dge 1'66). NSs are  better teachers in 20 contets, because of their uni7ue cultural knowledge, whereas  NNSs are better teachers in S0 contets, because of their multicultural eperience. $his view, however, is not shared by all eperts, many of whom believe that NNS teachers are  better teachers only in their own countries. (0lurda 334).Bne uni7ue advantage NNS nglish teachers have over NS teachers is that they can empathise very well with their students: learning difficulties and understand what it is to be homesick and to eperience culture shock in S0 contets (rva > &edgyes 333). /n terms of language awareness, NS teachers, in contrast, could easily discourage their students since they are rarely able to make useful comparisons and contrasts with the learners: first language and are often unable to empathise with students going through the learning process (!arratt > ?ontra 333). ven more importantly, NNS teachers can 4
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