Urban Forms in Planning and Design

This paper on urban form in planning and design is intended to discuss how the old concepts are changing and new meaning of the urban form is emerging in the planning and development of urban centres. The paper is an attempt to elucidate the basic
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   Urban Forms In Planning And Design By Shashikant Nishant Sharma 7 International Journal of Research (IJR), Volume-1, Issue-1, February, 2014 Downloaded from  Urban Forms in Planning and Design   Shashikant Nishant Sharma For Reference: Sharma, Shashikant Nishant (2014), Urban Forms in Planning and Design, International  Journal of Research (IJR ), Volume-1, Issue-1. Keywords: Urban Form, Planning, Growth of Cities, Design Concept, Emerging Urban Forms, Urban Forms Abstract: This paper on urban form in planning and design is intended to discuss how the old concepts are changing and new meaning of the urban form is emerging in the planning and development of urban centres. The paper is an attempt to elucidate the basic concepts of the urban forms and how they are perceived at different levels of the planning and design exercises. The paper finally concludes with findings and recommendations which can guide the future course of development of new towns and the growth of the urban centres.   Urban Forms In Planning And Design By Shashikant Nishant Sharma 8 Downloaded from  International Journal of Research (IJR), Volume-1, Issue-1, February 2014 Introduction If we call the 20th century the age of urbanization and urban life – this is because never before in the history of mankind urbanization grew so fast – the new century has experienced us people with packages of rural life who live in an urbanized world. Transition is complex phenomenon that includes important technological, economic, social and political aspects. The process of economic globalization today is having profound impacts on national and urban economies and patterns of spatial development in most regions of the world. In the face of fierce competition for attracting international investment capital and upgrading their position in the global network of world cities many urban centres are forced to create and maintain new comparative advantages by creating economic synergies through the establishment of urban alliances and growth corridors. This has led to the development of new urban forms based on complementary functions as a necessary condition for maximizing such synergetic economic activities. The emergence of a renewed ‘market-oriented reasoning’ has dramatically changed the way public urban policies are discussed and carried out. This has had dramatic consequences for how urban space is planned and designed. It is not only urban ‘form’ that has changed, but also how architects and urban planners perceive the role and function of urban space. Economists and other social scientists have tried to study urban form more or less rigorously for the better part of two centuries. Form The history of form has its roots in ancient Roman lexicon. The Latin form of “form” is “forma”. It is used in the same form in the majority of modern European languages such as Italian, Spanish, Polish, and Russian. It is pronounced and written as form in English, French and Germany. However, the long history of this word and its wide use has created ambiguities in semantics of the word. Apparently etymology of the word may lead us to a transparent meaning of this word at present. Tatar Kivich is one of the renowned Western researchers who has paid deserving attention to the semantics and etymology of the words. Kivich believes before any survey on historical transformation of the word in various artistic fields we must first identify its multiform semantics, and then continue with the etymology of the word. To do this, Kivich has made an interesting innovation. He has tried to put form in front of its opposites in order to identify its semantic areas before going into etymology. He says: “Aesthetic researches have clarified at least five meanings for form, all of which need deserving attention for correct understanding of concepts and discussions on form.” (Ramin, 1998) Form is taken as the arrangement and discipline among various components of any work. Form in the meaning of what is directly perceived by senses. Form is a concept that indicates the presence of something that distinguishes it from other subjects. Form is the conceptual essence of something that is placed opposite casual features. Form   Urban Forms In Planning And Design By Shashikant Nishant Sharma 9 Downloaded from  International Journal of Research (IJR), Volume-1, Issue-1, February 2014 means contribution of the mind for understanding things. Urban Form In the contemporary cities that are always subject to changes and developments, unmethodical expansion, and constant addition of components the form too, faces new challenges and problems. In this connection Dr. Nasr writes: “Our traditional architecture and urban development were seriously damaged by imitating European architecture and urban planning. Almost all of the new constructions are ugly. The majority of the new buildings are terrible as far as Indian traditional culture and aesthetics, social and human relations that Islam has publicized, and their impacts on natural environment are concerned” (Nasr, 1995). To prevent the emergence of these problems and the appearance and deterioration of pluralism and alienation in city form, we ought to boost capabilities and skills for controlling and organizing new constructions and sometimes sparse and scattered construction. In the past, development of cities in India was subject to relatively fixed and resolute laws, therefore, there were common laws in connection with city form in India such as the presence of a consolidated and uniform generality, conformity to nature and living environment, conformity of residential units and urban elements, observing artistic and aesthetic considerations and finally observing hierarchy. Presently, the urban form has undergone drastic changes with no conformity to the previous rules and regulations. These changes have affected the relations between mass and space, city form and natural environment, culture and social relations and have broken apart the previous bonds and identity of the cities. As in urban planning field, mental grease of a group of researchers has led to formation of some types of approaches paying attention to the impact of culture and its various manifestations on city form. Learning about intellectual principles, rules and laws, the process of design and consequences will be very effective in constructive interference in the city form. The presupposition placed emphasis on the role of urban planner as a subjective factor in promoting the quality of city form. This is because constructive components of city form – on which we will discuss in this study  – are all capable of promoting the quality of city form. They can also overshadow these features or even destroy them. Therefore, since interference of city planners is effective in city form, it is important to study way of using their approaches in realizing each of the above. Indeed, the objective behind studying various approaches is identifying criteria and doctrines publicized by these thinkers. Although any city planner can impose his thought, approach and methods in city planning to his share, it is necessary to scrutinize the views and experiences of the city planners who have entered into the city planning literature through paying attention to city form and the role of culture. In spite of the fact that awareness on these opinions is not sufficient for promoting the quality of city form, we can openly claim   Urban Forms In Planning And Design By Shashikant Nishant Sharma 10 Downloaded from  International Journal of Research (IJR), Volume-1, Issue-1, February 2014 that it is the precondition for entering into this discussion. EFFECTIVE FACTORS IN FORMATION OF URBAN FORM ECONOMY    City is a phenomenon in relation with its type of livelihood    Capital    Work power (people, government, designer)    Management    Existing policies, rules and government bills    Obstacles and restrictions (possibilities and limitations)    Sources and profits SOCIETY    City is a phenomenon in relation with its society.    Chronological and historical background    Science and art    Way of thought and cosmology    Philosophy and ideology    Technology and knowledge    Mentality    Population    Language    Race    Religion Traditional and cultural glimpses    Rites and rituals    Value NATURE    City is a phenomenon in relation with its nature    Geographical specifications, Location, Topography    Ecological and climate features    Water, Rain    Soil    Wind    Plant    Sun    Town scape COMPONENTS ELEMENTS OF URBAN FORM We want to have a look of the city and how this look should improve. Look at it in its self-actuality. Look at it more than two dimensions height, time, location, mentality, life, sense, people, plants, buildings, space, solids, voids, etc. If we consider a city multi-dimensional, the urban form is personified, i.e. it is presented like a living creature that has body and spirit. Its body is studied in three scales of macro, medium and micro level and people, activities, smells, scents and sounds and other mental and sentimental as well as non-fixed elements that constitute a city in its generality form the spirit of the city.   Urban Forms In Planning And Design By Shashikant Nishant Sharma 11 Downloaded from  International Journal of Research (IJR), Volume-1, Issue-1, February 2014 MACRO SCALE CITY FIGURE: Evolvement of the city’s fabric in to the space creates figure of the city. The city figure is manifestation of liveliness, power, collapse, density and mysterious greatness. Since the approach to city structure is macro in scale, it is free of details. In this sense, the city can be likened to a statute that has risen from the midst of space. Its components are either natural things such as mountains, valleys, water, lakes, trees, and greenhouses or manmade such as buildings and sites, ups and downs, solid and voids places, routes, etc. These are seen in two cases, either when entering a city area by plane or from high-rise strategic points. The observer must be either in a place above the city or below the city. COMPONENTS ELEMENTS OF CITY FIGURE:    Entrances and Exits    Solid and Void    Skyline    Silhouette MEDIUM SCALE IMAGE OF CITY: In this scale such factors are introduced that are seen and memorized, that recalling of which causes happiness. In other words, the image any individual saves in his mind with observing elements of the city that is associated with certain memories when he recalls it. These factors may be a single building, transitory, a borderline separating part of the city, an attractive locality center or even the locality itself with certain features. In other words, such factors are surveyed that help the individual to read and find his way. This image is engraved in the mind of individuals based on the common culture and thought. The city with legibility and manifestation leaves a bright picture in the mind of the watchers and visitors and seems to them well-designed and beautiful, distinguished and considerable (Fig.5). COMPONENTS ELEMENTS OF IMAGE OF CITY:    Land mark    Route    Edge    Node    District MICRO SCALE CITY FACE: Those visual factors of cities body when is noticed immediately after entry It is comprised of the clearest visual factors in the city that are seen immediately after stepping into the city. In other words, all observable elements in the city seen at close range are classified in this category.
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