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Suspension Baja Final Report 2007

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL, MATERIALS AND AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING    92‐420 Capstone II     2007 Baja Project ‐ Suspension    Submitted by:    Student  William Bombardier  Ahmad Fadel  Xiangdong Ding  Ian Funkenhauser  Brian Zuccato  Mike Bowie  Ye Tao  Bo Huang  E‐mail Address (Non‐Uwindsor)  (bomb_a_deer@hotmail.com)  (ahmadluay@hotmail.com)  (xiangdong_ding@hotmail.com)  (jackass97867@hotmail.com)  (bcz1358@hotmail.com)  (bowie3@hotmail.com)  (tzdd2002@hotmail.com)  (wongbo12345@hotmail.com) 
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    FACULTY   OF   MECHANICAL,   MATERIALS   AND   AUTOMOTIVE   ENGINEERING   92 ‐ 420   Capstone   II   2007   Baja   Project ‐ Suspension   Submitted    by:   Student   E ‐ mail   Address   (Non ‐ Uwindsor)   William   Bombardier   (bomb_a_deer@hotmail.com)   Ahmad   Fadel   (ahmadluay@hotmail.com)   Xiangdong   Ding   (xiangdong_ding@hotmail.com)   Ian   Funkenhauser   (jackass97867@hotmail.com)   Brian   Zuccato   (bcz1358@hotmail.com)   Mike   Bowie   (bowie3@hotmail.com)   Ye   Tao   (tzdd2002@hotmail.com)   Bo   Huang   (wongbo12345@hotmail.com)   August   3 rd   2007   Submitted To: Dr. Bruce Minaker  2007 Baja ProjectSuspension   i 1) Table of Contents 1) Table of Contents.............................................................................................................i2) List of Tables.................................................................................................................iv3) List of Figures.................................................................................................................v4) List of Equations............................................................................................................ix5) Nomenclature..................................................................................................................x6) Introduction to Suspension Kinematics and Kinetics.....................................................16.1) Suspension Kinetics.................................................................................................16.1.1) Vehicle ride modeling (vertical dynamics)......................................................26.1.2) Vehicle handling.............................................................................................116.2) Suspension Kinematics..........................................................................................186.2.1) Track width and tire scrub..............................................................................186.2.2) Instant center and roll center position.............................................................196.2.3) Camber angle..................................................................................................216.2.4) Caster angle and caster trail............................................................................246.2.5) Kingpin angle and scrub radius......................................................................256.2.6) Toe angle, roll steer and bump steer...............................................................276.2.7) Aligning torque or self centering moment......................................................306.2.8) Anti-dive/anti-squat........................................................................................306.2.9) Motion ratio and wheel rate............................................................................336.2.10) Roll stiffness.................................................................................................346.2.11) Vehicle ride height........................................................................................356.2.12) Understeering/Oversteering characteristics of vehicle.................................356.3) Spring rate determination......................................................................................377) 2007 Suspension Kinematics........................................................................................387.1) Choosing the dimensions of the vehicle................................................................387.2) Choosing the suspension points.............................................................................407.3) Choosing the suspension geometry angles............................................................417.4) Choosing the inner suspension points...................................................................427.5) Choosing the steering tie rods lengths...................................................................477.6) Choosing the strut mounting points.......................................................................487.7) Design front and rear suspension to be consistent.................................................498) 2007 Suspension kinetics..............................................................................................528.1) Handling analysis on 2006 vehicle........................................................................52  2007 Baja ProjectSuspension   ii8.2) Approach to designing 2007 suspension kinetics..................................................538.3) 2007 front and rear suspension shocks..................................................................548.4) The required spring rates based on the Olley criteria............................................548.5) CarSim model for 2007 vehicle.............................................................................568.6) Necessary combination of Elka Suspensions springs............................................648.7) Evaluation of spring rate in CarSim......................................................................658.8) Ride, bounce, pitch and wheel hop frequencies....................................................678.9) Prediction of vehicle performance in regards to the dynamic events....................729) Suspension Component Design....................................................................................749.1) Choice of Materials...........................................................................................749.2) Front Suspension System..................................................................................759.2.1) Control Arms............................................................................................759.2.2) Finite Element Analysis............................................................................769.2.3) Joints.........................................................................................................789.2.4) Steering tie rod and bump stop.................................................................809.3) Rear Suspension System........................................................................................829.3.1) Control Arms..................................................................................................829.3.2) Finite Element Analysis..................................................................................849.3.3) Joints...............................................................................................................849.4) Installation.............................................................................................................8510) Shocks (Dampers & Springs).....................................................................................8810.1) Chosen shocks.....................................................................................................8810.2) Adjustable Damping............................................................................................8910.3) Progressive spring rates.......................................................................................9011) Hubs & Uprights.........................................................................................................9311.1) Background & Research......................................................................................9311.2) Concepts & Brainstorming..................................................................................9311.3) CATIA Modeling................................................................................................9411.4) FEA......................................................................................................................9511.5) Materials & Manufacturing Procedure Used.......................................................9511.6) Finished Product..................................................................................................9511.6.1) Testing..........................................................................................................9511.7) Recommendations for Improvements..................................................................9612) Tires and Rims............................................................................................................9712.1) Background and Research..................................................................................97  2007 Baja ProjectSuspension   iii12.2) Concepts and Brainstorming..............................................................................9712.3) CATIA Modeling.............................................................................................10512.4) Additional Analysis..........................................................................................10512.5) Materials and Manufacturing Procedures Used................................................10612.6) Finished Product...............................................................................................10612.6.1) Product Assembly and Maintenance.........................................................10612.6.2) Testing........................................................................................................10612.7) Recommendations for Improvement................................................................10713) Suspension tuning and testing..................................................................................10813.1) Suspension kinematics adjustment and measurement.......................................10813.2) Dynamic tuning of the suspension.....................................................................11113.3) Problems during testing.....................................................................................11214) Strain gage testing....................................................................................................11614.1) Background & Research....................................................................................11614.2) Concepts & Brainstorming................................................................................11614.3) CATIA Modeling..............................................................................................11814.4) FEA....................................................................................................................11914.5) Additional Analysis...........................................................................................12014.6) Materials & Manufacturing Procedure Used.....................................................12114.7) Recommendations for Improvements................................................................12115) Suspension Prototype...............................................................................................12215.1) Background & Research....................................................................................12215.2) Concepts & Brainstorming................................................................................12215.3) ADAMS Modeling............................................................................................12315.4) Additional Analysis...........................................................................................12715.5) CATIA & FEA..................................................................................................12715.6) Materials & Manufacturing Procedure Used.....................................................12915.7) Finished Product................................................................................................13015.7.1) Product Assembly & Maintenance.............................................................13015.7.2) Testing........................................................................................................13215.8) Recommendations for Improvements................................................................13316) References and contacts............................................................................................13916.1) Contacts.............................................................................................................13916.2) Websites.............................................................................................................14016.3) Books and professional papers..........................................................................141
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