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Sicilian studies / [Percy Gardner]

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  illUMCC,'..rcs- ' lrA:' cTC 10; ,C······H-· -R·_,CliO';N- IO······>··LII E· 1, ,c._,,_':._. ':lII._'_c_ '..., _CC ', v.__ '/ '<.. '_1_ ~'II I~, ITHE present pap1er' contains an attenll)-t to Ido som.ethingtowards fixiIlg the exactperiod at whieh ·th,e coinsof ·t'he '. f!!' .-.' -ci cities '0 £: 's:o\'\: l' y. w-,Bir 'e' respectively r,. 'I'~Oi~'-n:1 d.' '·T·b];;;·,[!I. Vall0u.811:,e~,_·_ .J:.IliJJ[.l~. ..... 11;1'ã'!;,.o! Jib,.._,_,__ ~!.;!I v...._:_- rO workhasbeenundertaken, :90 far asthe coinage 0·£ S c-:'y' 'Ui!i'(il~ us 0; i~' on cern ,ad', by 1\1[I ij(!O H, ::' V' Head in I' ·t-ha paper ~._.a;.W!li..i1 '~iQ LOi ~v.' VI!i ;' ,,,c y_ j 'c'. j] .. 1.IO'-,. c.J:l:Q(;l;c, '.' I;;> ,!Ii.9 ,.;!;, whic'h.appeared in the NumiematicO.hron·icle for1814·,;; IfMr,~Head'hadextended his,essa:y to all fEaoil:y', 'hie, 'wouldhaveleft small, room for futureIabourersinthat fi:e]d..T.h·lie, 'however aid not enteri·n·tohisplan, M'Y' scheme of arrangement t:liffers cQIDsid,erably fromhis,.It 'would, have, been, 'possible 00 tWtle· np the history' of each of' the Sieilian !citi,e-s'inturnas, he 'lOO]{ u:p ,that,of Syra.... euse,todivideeach 'history Into p!erlod.s, and t'o :assign toeach period, froma,va.rietl of considerations,theeoinswhichseemtobelong to itl But such awork, however'useful it .migh,t havebeen,would greaJt11y have exceeded th,e. Iimitsofan,articlein taa,e N'umisma'tic Chron·j'cle\J and It, furth,er difBC1ul~y' wouldhavearisenbecauseIprobably' could.nothaveobtained im.pressio'DSI of all the SIcilian, CO'in~1 seatteredthroughthe museums 0 ,E,u'lope, in order to ·ma.l[e·tb,e list.s complete,I :haY'e: th€Jrefa.re limited m.yaeIf to ,R much narrower field. B  2'· . _ '-T'Y -1ii - '!lJ'f~ !i1Tri 'l' n Cj'nn''' '''~IiIf'!.LW NI!;;i!,MiI;S'j[~ ~,1,.... I;..;i'.... Q~\,v~ ' -,ii;!Y,'t . Th,ere are three eourcea w hencewe'may gain from. the fj,tudy of a coindata for fix.-illg' its period. I'o the :fil 8t place its. typ es In:ay haveapoli tical, reference,o.rbefor.otherreasons such, ascould, only havebeenusedataparticular period,., Forexample the piecesbearingthename ofa :king must almosteertainly haveappearedduring thatking's Iifetime, Or, again .if' a cit.y wasto our k':;r ow Iedg. ,n d· 'estro 'y;e;d' at 'Ii':i eertain 'd' i!Ji1.t..a '1~1 t CJI C-·'0' in (:I, m-. u ;(:! ~ _.1 _..L I _ U,':,~ -I, : I O ',_, 4ii~_-~.,:._.~ . v.~-_: ,.'~ '!iJ.-~ !i,_~-=_'. .~.l,W.~~, ,I .g...~ .~!~.:.-_~I(~ have been Jssued before t',hat date,'Or)oncemore, if theruler o:f one cit,y 'made; 'hims;elf~ ,at :aknown'tim.'8 j, master (It asecond ,oity'~ andamong the coinsofthissecond city' there ,ap'pea.r some with, th.'e '~ypeB of th.'eir conqu,e:FOt theepoch ofthesepieces also can be almostwitheertainty concluded, Of' coursenoneof these testscan be:used ,in amerely mechanical W'Ry~ Cases might:easil Y'be:found w'he~easlavish fat'biding 'by them \vouIdIead to error, But; used in telli,g,ently J they certainly affard~ valuable 'indications,This second set, 1 0£' iindi.cations, useful for the present purpose :iiS, to 'hie found froma study of this mythologicaleharaeterandth,sstyleof art in the typeif1 ofcoins 'Vithin the]8 s't :hfl;H eentury very mueh hasbeen done to .n .J.''L d l It f th~G;~~ f .. 'I'.] 1.lX l!·JJfe: ale 0-;, '1-.__ ,6 appearancem vrreeee 01; various 'B~y ies ofart ana, 'modesoftreatment. Th'l9 utterancesofancient oriti j'liot::l a nd travel o'iL ~ esp iO,ni!i1:il'llly' ·pl-~i.~ln'·y~·- l n- 'd' Pausania e'!' !v ,' '~!di ·~i·._._.~. dll~~.!i, ~,~ .~'..1 -lU.~~~. :.._ I 1ill._~.. ~,I._.' W }Idt~··- .1~lJ 'h'-b il d 'I' '1' '-h d th~ f ;BVi8:· een,.. eX8Dlm,e~_,In every light, an':-:e remains o~ antiquity compared In a more, in,tellligent spirit, hid as coins,il! carelessly executed asthey'often are, y'et reflect ,lCrC.urately the, influeneesofeonsemporary art, it is, clear thaj~much ,ma'y' be gained b:y comparingtheircharacter- :isticB with,thoseof' ancient monuments 'whose date:can, be: determined;, Just as, on the other hand, coins, of known date'will 11x the period of' st;atU0S and g~ i' 'ForInetance, W'G 'knowt'ha't,thepersonel tra·i.t.s oif Alexan,de:l,the Gr1ea·t  servedtomodify ths id,eal representation of the 'huma,n head in the days of Lysippns, and it, is generally possiblefrom l1::nowl, edge of this:faut alone to. de'teiF',mine whether acoinbearingas 't,ype a young malehead 'belongs to the period,'before or'the period, aft,er Aleix,an,de,rll Aga;in, a representation of amalehead withthe:'hair'bound in, a k~obylusmust almost~lwayls beclassednot la.tel' thanthe ear],Y 'part of the fifthcentury ,;1 while wavy :R111d artistiaall,Y' sprea,dlocks D€fV'eF' ap.pear before ,the, aI,ge of Seopas and:Praxi teJ,el~~, Th,e thrnd se,t of indications, aredrawn from. thehistory fani h Th-'!Ii- d-ladd~'b -k d h fji, ,oP:-IO fillli1P:-,: I-Y--- 10; il:jl'~'''lil' Iy-- In- i:iIiC!i,--- '1 '- 'm-Inr.a. -,'Ovii'!!; ~--w-':' !i'li,~- -t-'_: 'nn--I 'U. P-'.t)~_-,~_ ii':.,--~~ IIll! y '_,-_ 'IQ!!.. ','I-~, ,U~'.U!L,I ,_ ~lIi.,-,-,__ I i!;;!!,! _ eou -ld~l- b- i ;; ~l- ' sh ,G,d- b- -I-]- I\.- ~~,~'ll I\.- a e; madedeeid o.;m -p,,- -cr- 0'- I'g: r--1Gt:I'Q '- ','ILl,--- _O 'iIf e_~-~ 'c_,-- __.I~ ~,:~liL--- lJ__~- !i;iIl'_ 'i!O'--- ,'0 , ,_-- :pU.__ -__..-- 'I- 1iJ!i,;,1I ,, since theimpulse Impartedto ,it 'by' Boeekh.In ,t',he 'Ca9€i of',A,ttic .insorj,ptions 8I,t all events, w e 'now' know' wit'h tolerable accuracywb sn,particular fOFIDiS O'f letterscame intouseandwent ourt of UStEL, I t is,gen,ieF',al1y', however, !only' in. the third place, and 'with great e antion , ·that weican,at p:l\esent rely (}'n ,tb,e iinsJ~ription,~ of ourcoins for 'n,xing' ,thieir' datss,Th,at R precedes IP, and E IH~ are Bafepropositions 'en OU, h, but donot give 'us the exact andminuteinformationwhich'we:desire. Inadditiontothedata g,adn:ed from these sourees something Qlay 'llSlla'llily b,e~ illierlled from fabric,espeeielly as to coins of an 6!:trly l~}e'riod; andmuch :m;ay often be Iearnedfromconsideringthe monetar,Y' standard used,I :p'aSiS l th,e~e: thing~ 'bylightly, because in the,part,ic.u]ar caseof Si,ci.~Jr t'hey do 'not aid 1llS much, the 'monetary etandardinthatislandbeingalmostuniformly'theAttio,andthefabricmueh the same !a,t, all periods after the flrs:t. Iventureboldly' tostate that, there is ~carcely allY coin f 8,··'1kh f,- e Romanneri d t,- 0, oiei ,Y:ll0\Vll, savethose 0_ tl- e.. omanperroo 'tue date ,ofwhichcannot, 'by oneoranother of theabovemeans, 'b'e fi xed within,'tw'en t,Y' 'Or ,th'irty' y'e:arfs~  - It i.s [o,t ,g'reat iD1,portllnce to observe the above order in settlin g the dates, of our eoina.. Historical data, if -th e:y 'be, certa-in.anddefinite, ,giv[e'tma[~ sateg-rol1n,d.. -cn:lt Ol~' akele;ton,~ Ieaving Oll.]y ,the details tobel :611.,8(1 in from .,l-1 ~¥i< IOAi.~-n.'l ni'ii,f!rj An-_-·'.d.-.~ lo_.t.~.,y_'·. ~,IO.'_- ofart, t_~l:p.- to ,t, ·,:h. e_-: '8_D:d of the l!l,rn...-:...m., ~IV YIi,.,!Il. ,~,0JiJ[.. I'ZII 1!t1 IA.. 'I iI' th' ;)II.., ~-[-''., ',-,- almost,. £lilll, -bl·,:· snid fornlioingrru cen!,jur,y~ B ,Ci_; L8 an ~08, mrar 1. ne gUl- e J!Ol ,p.cEUJ.l_.-., 'i' h 'h)- JlI 4-..;1 ,!'......' 'b ourplec!el~-'I whenoneewe 1 iave eemeu xo ~tl:o,gu]lS-, ~-I h' I' b';;' t~ ~'~t ti] _.' -. -,--- ',.:.,....,'--'..',.',:,. ','.''.1-- ..'.'.',',.'-- ''If:'--',','... C '.,,- ge,u tllID,e,y aror aierrom mere are: ais 10 or lIDl:R, rveworx, mT-h t ~'1'~- .c- !I'd t ha- D'ii1' -raphY' will soon ' a· SLry' e 15 asarer gu:iI1 __ e~'_n '~f15i1\~,~ ,!.:J'.: ~:yl I, become evident to ,any' one- 'who tries to arra'ngea,series ã of ,.(t,-, ,···,··'k·.. ,~-:.l ,£!: t·· bv the t--'-'-l' , onlv and -:-.:,.-:..1111',,.. bv o irreea coms,nrs. y t 19 ~,ye 0 ,y , an.. ifiJeOonwy --,y t· -h' .~ ' , ,·t,~ on onl ly 'J, It' !!;i,p ---p- iCtiiOi,,~g th 'a't:'-'n DW·'- · eA,'r' m. a o,-·e 'ole ::mnSCl]p'_.JLv l: .....,.. ~,-__ ~~i.i;,;;:I'-. _I~.. 10 l,u,, iQI'.. '.l letters 'w'B1II e-- n ot usually in :i]t;O'riI''i eral ,~li'!!;Jfii;iOi,p' J,.1~-·,g'TII;iftIon unt ,ill': about ., ~JL.I~J .'!L-,~.... l ,.!_V l_ !Wt~IUJ~._.lIl.~·:~. ~~JU.~ (,'~ 1U.!~~i~... '~Ui~~~ _......-_.- ,~... !. .:,1 '_-_-~'-(''---,'':',.-,f, iIi':_r-- -'.'-.--''.':, fl:t·~····:·, thei Ii ':11'- .-·t 0 I-J,.,· 'd ',. I': t: --:.' - :, , her~···a:' '· 'l~·t-' score 0,1 ,yea.IS a ,er men rs,mtroc ,tIC. ron, W. area..__ 1 .,_-.-'.'1.3be 1..:11 ~·ffi:'·.~,~, lt ·t'- l. r-s.-.:.~. ..,-..',.. r I ·h', '.' ,t' '1 '·· I t·'..'.:. 'd', woninoe u.11 JJlti__O prove ,any ,SU,C-- uneeram, 'y an :8uotuation ill the p;rogTess of typ' 8S.. BU.t evicteD,tIy., to I~H~MJU,!~\B ~:a,tisfa,[c:tory' 'lfeflul t, W'8 must makesimultaneous useof 'Bv'ery eireumstanee wh,ic,h will,thrrow' any' ligh:ton,the subject, , T'he:reareseveralevents of'knowndate which loan, .be showntohavehad an, influence on, Sicilian coinaze, Iy Th,e-seI'will bl~i~fl.,y ndicate in, sueeession, Butn,fst it is, im 'P, ossiblen ot to ;Qj.X-''''11Ii[',·e: !i::rI, regret t' hat th ereisa w· rant [0' ',f:, __....o.gJll.~ IU..._.~. l~..~~.~'.' 0 I- ,Q-,,-.~ u~ J.. I ,, 00···1J _·t da',t,a for fla'tisfac'to:rily determining the exactperiod when the Sicilian Gr~el[s began coining money, T,h,ere Is in the Wes.tno trustworthy tradition >corresp,ondjn,g to those in the Ea:rst, 'W hich assoeiate the namesof Pheidon the Arglv'ls,of Crmsus;ofDarius,and of' Solon with the early' il Inthe~,~Berliner B~ ';;'r,i-,~,~! jl~ volvi Dr' S-:iiI'!Jh'ub,'t:II ':> 'I'g- 1f-'i!il~'£:~·~el.::l! ---...,'_'Ji.-u. Ill! ~!Ui,ll;,, '!.!' .~!If_ ill', -!,. ill'_.' 1IJ_,__ 4- ,u.. lIiJliPIir.:;li w:. JIiã._ ILL ,to_ art',r!JJlgle t·h,ee oin sof IGHla in (l}:U'O;l1o]ogieeaJ~ order from a study iO£' 'th.eir €llpigra.:phY'i' The, resultis~llytbiDi but sa,t.is£ac'tt),ry;o..
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