Physicochemical Properties of Sea Water and Bittern in Indonesia: Quality Improvement and Potential Resources Utilization for Marine Environmental Sustainability

The traditional salt production in Indonesia was investigated to report the preparation and processing of salt, determine the characteristics of sea water and bittern as well as explore the potential of bittern management with appropriate technology.
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  1 INTRODUCTION Traditional salt production plants are man-made systems exploiting sea water for salt pro-duction by wind and solar evaporation. Sea water  bitterns are encountered in the sea salt production and desalination process in which large quantities of bittern and brine are produced as by-product and waste-product. Bittern (supernatant liquid) re-mains after evaporation and crystallization of so-dium chloride salt, rich in compounds of magne-sium, potassium, chloride and sulfates (Rodrigues et al. 2011; Hussein et al. 2017). Indonesia, a mar-itime country with the second longest coastline in the world, has to develop good management in order to achieve high marine productivity and environmental marine sustainability (Ministry of Maritime Aairs and Fisheries, 2017). East Java Province is second largest Indone- sia salt buer zone of after East Nusa Tenggara. East Java is located between Longitude 111°0ˈE  – 114°4ˈE and Latitude 7°12ˈS – 8°48ˈS has 229 islands with a total land area of 47,995 km 2 . It is divided by two areas; Java Island and Madura Island, which constitute about 90% and 10% area of this province, respectively. East Java coastal area is the largest, compared to other coastal area in Java Island. It is grouped into the north coast, the east coast and the south coast. Generally, the north and east coastal areas are used for marine transportation, environmental protection, tour- ism and shing settlement. On the other hand, the southern coast, is generally a rugged coast- line washed by large waves of the Indian Ocean. Therefore, only certain parts can be used as a shing settlement and tourism area. The coast of  Journal of Ecological Engineering Received: 2018.01.15Accepted: 2018.03.15Published: 2018.05.01 Volume 19, Issue 3, May 2018, pages 1–10 Physicochemical Properties of Sea Water and Bittern in Indonesia: Quality Improvement and Potential Resources Utilization for Marine Environmental Sustainability Mirna Apriani 1,2* , Wahyono Hadi 1 , Ali Masduqi 1 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Environment and Geo Engineering, Institut  Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia 2 Study program of Safety Engineering, Politeknik Perkapalan Negeri Surabaya, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia* Corresponding author’s e-mail: ABSTRACT The traditional salt production in Indonesia was investigated to report the preparation and processing of salt, determine the characteristics of sea water and bittern as well as explore the potential of bittern management with appropriate technology. Field study and comprehensive analysis were performed so as to better understand the salt making, providing valuable information for the proposal of targeted management strategies in salt quality improvement and wastewater recovery. The results show that Na + ,   Cl  –   and Ca 2+  in East Java Province seawater were found greater than the majority of values found in the literature. The highest concentrations of Na + ,   Cl  –   and Ca 2+  were measured in Camplong-Sampang District. The highest concentrations of Mg 2+  and trace metals were recorded in Panceng-Gresik District. The trace metals found in sea water and bittern need particular concern to  be removed without disposing of sea water minerals. The potential number of bittern in Indonesia promoted the development of the bittern management for magnesium recovery and achieving marine environment sustainability. High puried material recovery can be achieved by using crystallization technology. Keywords:  magnesium, management, recovery, sustainability   Journal of Ecological Engineering  Vol. 19(3), 2018 2East Java has almost twice the land area, reach- ing 75,700 km 2 . It was calculated from 12-mile  border province, while the coastline has ± 2,128 km along the active and potential coast. East Java is not only characterized by wide area; it also has rich natural resources, such as carrying capacity for province development (Ministry of Maritime Aairs and Fisheries, 2013). Indonesian salt was  produced in more than 70% in Java Island by tra - ditional processes (Susanto et al., 2015). Tewari et al., (2003) reported that bittern, as euent from salt production, could be a pollutant for marine when discharged directly to the sea. The experiment investigated the eect of bittern discharged to the coastal water. The experiment was conducted using mangrove  Avicennia marina . The bittern could be growth inhibitory with 50% concentration for mangrove. The 100% concen - tration of bittern was lethal after 8 hour-exposure during 10 days for mangrove  Avicennia marina . Sea water, as a part of marine environment, has to be protected due to its sustainability. Sea water has a role of supporting good conditions for the development of marine life. As marine envi-ronment, sea water addresses the aquatic ecosys- tem and supports mankind’s life in coastal areas. Sea water is used as raw material for traditional salt production and constitutes environment for marine life to support sheries. Salt production and sheries can support economy for communi -ties who live in coast. The main purpose of the experiment is to pro-mote utilization bittern to add economic value and to protect marine environment. The rst objective of this work is reporting the preparation stages and processing to produce salt. To our knowl -edge, there are no studies on the traditional salt  ponds preparation and processing of sea water. However, understanding how these preparation stages and processes interact to product sea salt traditionally remains a major challenge in marine  productivity. The second objective is to observe the characteristics of sea water as raw material for traditional salt production in Indonesia as well as a waste by-product. More information is needed to closely dene the possible range in the major mineral and trace element composition of raw material and bittern. Reporting the preparation stages, processing and characterizing sea water and bittern would provide valuable information for the improvement of Indonesian salt quality, develop environment sustainability and add value for itself. The third objective is to investigate the  potential of waste by-product utilization from tra- ditional salt maker in Indonesia and promote the technology of magnesium recovery from bittern. Several studies have been conducted on bittern utilization; however, there are no data showing the real number of bittern resulting in Indonesia  per year. This data contributes to the stimulation of the on national program to manage bittern, i.e. readily-available and promising raw material for magnesium recovery. Comprehensive bittern management has the possibility of giving an eco-nomic value for bittern and to protect the marine environment. Safe marine environment can sup- port its sustainability resulting high marine pro-ductivity. Appropriate technology for magnesium recovery is needed for the production of new, highly-puried materials. METHODS Study area East Java Province is located in eastern Java; it includes the island of Madura, which is con-nected to Java by the longest bridge in Indone-sia, the Suramadu Bridge. In order to represent the characteristic raw water for salt in East Java, twenty sampling locations, code named 1 to 20, were selected. The assumed sampling location is shown in Figures 1 and 2. Sampling, on site analysis and interviews Field studies were conducted to investigate the traditional salt preparation and production  process through on site visits of salt ponds, inter-view with the salt farmer and sample collection to characterize the raw material. Raw water sample were collected in plastics bottles and stored at room temperature prior to the laboratory analysis. Physical and chemical analysis The conducted analyses were based on the standard methods given by American Water Works Association. Atomic Absorption Spec -trometry method used to measure  Na + ,  K  + ,  Br   –  ,  B  –  , Sr  2+  and trace metals (  Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ ,  As 2+ ,  Hg  2+ ). Complexometry method was used to measure Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . Argentometry method used to con-duct the measurement of Cl   –  . Iodometry method was used to analyze  I   –  . Spectrophotometry meth- od was employed to measure F  –  ,  2−   ,  3−   ,  4+   ,  43−   ,  42−   . Furthermore, salinity of the sample  3  Journal of Ecological Engineering  Vol. 19(3), 2018 was measured by salinometer. Baume degree of sea water was determined by means of a hydrom-eter, whereas pH was measured by using a pH meter (CyberScan pH 510-Eutech). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The preparation stages and processing of traditional salt production The results of the eld study showed that tra -ditional salt production used some ponds to evap-orate the sea water. In general, the ponds involve (i) stabilization, reservoir of feed sea water as raw material and settling to remove large particle from sea water (ii) evaporation (iii) concentration, and (iv) crystallization (Susanto et al., 2015). Tradi -tional salt production ponds can be illustrated in Figure 3. The pond preparation stages were re - ported in the following reviews. At the rainy sea- son, some of salt ponds are utilized for sh pond or are allowed to be lled by rain water. Sea wa - ter owed to the ponds through sea water channel called caren  (A). Water was distributed in several  ponds using a windmill that utilized wind as an energy source (B). In some cases, when wind is not available or insucient to move windmill, the water distribution in salt ponds is performed using a long bamboo scoop (C). The preparation  phase for salt production processing is started by draining water and cleaning up the plants grown during the rainy season from the pond (D). If there are holes in the pond, they will be closed manually (E). The land surface of a pond is at - tened using a wooden tool called serkot, i.e. short serkot (F); long serkot (G). After attening the  pond surface, pond is dried by sun evaporation (H). Surface dried pond is then smoothed by a traditional cylinder called  guluk   (I). After being smoothed (J), the pond is lled with sea water and allowed stagnant for approximately two days. If the pond surface become cracked (K) or a foot - print is left when tread on (L), the farmer has to repeat stages F to I until the surface pond is at, as well as no cracking and or footprints are visible when tread on (J). The preparation stages can be illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 1.  Sampling location in the present study (code name 1–12 and 18–20)   Journal of Ecological Engineering  Vol. 19(3), 2018 4 Figure 2.  Sampling location in the present study (code name 10–20) Figure 3.  Illustration of traditional salt production (Susanto et al., 2015)  5  Journal of Ecological Engineering  Vol. 19(3), 2018 After all of the ponds have been prepared for use, the next step involves processing sea water to produce the salt. Sea water constituted the raw material distributed by gravity in the ponds and exposed to sunlight. The density of sea water in every pond has to be monitored regularly dur-ing the salt production process using the Baume (°BE) degree hydrometer. Densities of seawater every pond in the salt production process will  be regularly monitored during the process ow of water in a salt pond. The success of salt pro-duction process depends on the density. Initially, the stabilization pond was lled with sea water (0°BE), after rising up to 5°BE, it owed to the evaporation pond. In the evaporation pond, evap- orated sea water became 11°BE and owed to the concentration pond. After sea water reached 22°BE, it was poured to the crystallization pond until 29°BE was achieved. The sea water in the crystallization pond became sodium chloride crystal salt and was ready to harvest. The sea wa-ter is poured into the pond in the sequence start-ing from stabilization-evaporation-concentration-crystallization. Salt harvesting was conducted in crystallization ponds. The salt deposit on the crystallization pond oor is piled up next to pond and left to dry. Some salt farmers discharge con- centrated liquid remains of salt harvesting back to the sea. Others recycled the bittern in salt plot for mixing with sea water as raw material. Physical and chemical characteristics of raw water The results of the physical parameters and chemical characteristics of the raw water samples are reported in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 represents the physical characteristics, including pH, °BE and salinity in the sampling location villages in some districts of East Java. Table 2 shows the chemical characteristics of the raw water sam-  ples. The pH parameter was around 6–8 for all samples. The °BE varied from 0 to 29, while sa - linity varied from 4 to 92 ppt. The correlation of °BE and salinity showed the linear relations, the higher the °BE, the higher the salinity. The chemi-cal characteristics represented by various parame-ter of major ions are dominated by  Na + ,  K  + , Ca 2+ ,  Mg  2+ , Cl   –  ,  42−   ,  F   –  ,  Br   –  . The highest concentration of  Mg  2+ is 28,714 mg/L, found in Campurejo Vil - lage, Panceng Sub District, Gresik District with °BE of 28 and concentration of Ca 2+ ,  Na + ,  K  +  and Cl   –   of 0 mg/L, 181,640 mg/L, 23.23 mg/L and 280,000 mg/L, respectively. In Sumenep District, the highest concentration of  Mg  2+  is 14,914 mg/L was found in Kalianget Timur Village, Kalianget Sub District. This sample has the concentration of Ca 2+ ,  Na + ,  K  + and Cl   –   of 0 mg/L, 166,062 mg/L, 32.6 mg/L and 256,000 mg/L, respectively, while °BE amounts to 29. Compared with the previous studies in measurement sea water parameter, rela-tively high concentration of Ca 2+ ,  Mg  2+ ,  Na + , and Figure 4.  The stages of preparation traditional salt production
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