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  Fiber Optic Communication Systems Lec # 02  Beyond the middle ages :  –   Newton (1642-1726) and Huygens (1629-1695) fight over nature of light 18th  –  19th centuries  –  Fresnel, Young experimentally observe diffraction, defeat  Newton’s   particle theory  –  Maxwell formulates electro-magnetic equations, Hertz verifies antenna emission principle (1899) 20th century  –  Quantum theory explains wave-particle duality  –  Invention of holography (1948)  –  Invention of laser principle (1954)  –  1st demonstration of laser (1960)  –  Proposal of fiber optic communications (1966)  –  1st demonstration of low-loss optical fibers (1970)  –  Optical applications proliferate into the 21st century : nonlinear optics, fiber optics, laser-based spectroscopy, computing, communications, fundamental science, medicine, biology, manufacturing, entertainment, …  (Let all flowers blossom!)   The nature of light  Ray Optics  Wave Optics  Electromagnetic Optics  Quantum Optics   Light is an electromagnetic wave  .  While light is a wave, it nevertheless travels along straight lines or rays  , enabling us to analyze simple optical components (e.g. lenses and mirrors ) and instruments in terms of geometrical optics.
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