Finite State Machine Decomposition For Low Power. Monteiro, J.C.; Oliveria, A.L.; Design Automation Conference, 1998. Proceedings 15-19 Jun 1998 Page(s):758 - 763 Speaker: WEI-FU HUANG,98662001. Outline. Introduction Basic Definitions Related Work Decomposition of Finite State Machines

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Finite State Machine Decomposition For Low PowerMonteiro, J.C.; Oliveria, A.L.;Design Automation Conference, 1998. Proceedings15-19 Jun 1998 Page(s):758 - 763Speaker: WEI-FU HUANG,98662001OutlineIntroduction Basic Definitions Related Work Decomposition of Finite State Machines Finite State Machine Decomposition for Low Power Conclusions References IntroductionIn static CMOS circuits, the probabilistic switching activity of nodes in the circuit is a good measure of the average power dissipation of the circuit. The disabling of the input/state registers is decided on a clock-cycle basis and can be done either by using aregister load-enable signal or by gating the clock. The original FSM is divided into two sub-FSMs where one of them is significantly smaller than the other. Except for transitions that involve going from one state in one sub-machine to a state in the other, only one of the sub-machines needs to be clocked .By selecting for the small sub-FSM a cluster of states in which the original FSM has a high probability of being in, most of the time we will be disabling all the state registers in the larger sub-FSM. Basic DefinitionsA finite state machine is defined in the standard was as a tuple M = (Σ,Δ,Q,qo, δ, λ) where Σ is a finite set of input symbols, Δ ≠φa finite set of output symbols,Q ≠φis a finite set of states, qo € Q is the “reset” state, δ (q,a): Q × Σ→Qis thetransition function, and λ(q,a) : Q ×Σ → Δ is the output function.Related WorkSo called power managementtechniques that shutdown blocks ofhardware for periods of time in which they are not producing useful data are effective methods to reduce the power consumption of a circuit. A system-level approach is todentify idle periods for entire modules and turn off the clock lines forless modules for the duration of the idle periods. The choice of the number of inputs to use for the pre-computation logic is critical.The more inputs used the highest the probability the pre-computation logic will be active, thus disabling logic in the original logic block. Decomposition of Finite State MachinesFig. 2. Structure of decomposed finite state machine.Fig. 3. State transition graph of the sequence detector.Fig. 4. STGs(State transition graph ) for the sequence detector after decomposition.Finite State Machine Decomposition for Low PowerThe main objective of this work is to use finite state machine decomposition techniques to achieve low power dissipation. The basic idea, described in this section, is to decompose the original machine into two machines, one of them with a reduced number of states and low power dissipation that performs needed computations for a large raction of the time. Conclusions The methodologyses well known decomposition techniques to obtain a state machineat, for the majority of the large examples tested, exhibits a muchnuller power dissipation than the original. It is clear that the results obtained in this paper can be improvedif a more efficient implementation of the decomposition strategyis selected. References[1] M. Alidina, J. Monteiro, S. Devadas, A. Ghosh, and M. Papaefthymiou.Precomputation-Based Sequential Logic Optimization for Low Power.IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems, 2(4):426-436, December 1994. [2] L. Benini, P. Siegel, and G. De Micheli. Automatic Synthesis of Low-Power Gated-Clock Finite-State Machines. IEEE Transactions onComputer-Aided Design, 15(6):63@643, June 1996.[3]L. Benini, P. Vuillod, C. Coelho, and G. De Micheli. Synthesis of Low- Power Partially-Clocked Systems from High-Level Specifications. In9th International Symposium on System Synthesis, November 1996.[4]A. Chandrakasan and R. Brodersen. Low Power Digital CMOS Design.Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. [5]S-H. Chow, Y-C. Ho, and T. Hwang. Low Power Realization of Finite State Machines - A Decomposition Approach. ACM Transactions onDesign Automation of Electronic Systems, 1(3):3 15-340, July 1996.

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