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# Cauchy-Schwarz

Cauchy-Schwarz. (Cauchy-Schwarz inequality) For any a1,…,an, and any b1,…bn. When n=1, LHS &lt;= RHS. Proof by induction (on n):. When n=2, want to show. Consider. Cauchy-Schwarz. (Cauchy-Schwarz inequality) For any a1,…,an, and any b1,…bn. Induction step: assume true for &lt;=n, prove n+1.

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#### Where the Real Battles Are Lost or Won

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Cauchy-Schwarz(Cauchy-Schwarz inequality) For any a1,…,an, and any b1,…bn When n=1, LHS <= RHS.Proof by induction (on n):When n=2, want to showConsiderCauchy-Schwarz(Cauchy-Schwarz inequality) For any a1,…,an, and any b1,…bn Induction step: assume true for <=n, prove n+1.inductionby P(2)Cauchy-Schwarz(Cauchy-Schwarz inequality) For any a1,…,an, and any b1,…bn Exercise: proveAnswer: Let bi = 1 for all i, and plug into Cauchy-SchwarzThis has a very nice application in graph theory that hopefully we’ll see.Geometric Interpretation(Cauchy-Schwarz inequality) For any a1,…,an, and any b1,…bn Interpretation:
• The left hand side computes the inner
• product of the two vectors
• If we rescale the two vectors to be of
• length 1, then the left hand side is <= 1
• The right hand side is always 1.
• abArithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean Inequality(AM-GM inequality) For any a1,…,an, Interesting induction (on n):
• Prove P(2)
• Prove P(n) -> P(2n)
• Prove P(n) -> P(n-1)
• Arithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean Inequality(AM-GM inequality) For any sequence of non-negative numbers a1,…,an, Interesting induction (on n):
• Prove P(2)
• Want to showConsiderArithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean Inequality(AM-GM inequality) For any sequence of non-negative numbers a1,…,an, Interesting induction (on n):
• Prove P(n) -> P(2n)
• inductionby P(2)Arithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean Inequality(AM-GM inequality) For any sequence of non-negative numbers a1,…,an, Interesting induction (on n):
• Prove P(n) -> P(n-1)
• Letthe average of the first n-1 numbers.Arithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean Inequality(AM-GM inequality) For any sequence of non-negative numbers a1,…,an, Interesting induction (on n):
• Prove P(n) -> P(n-1)
• LetGeometric Interpretation(AM-GM inequality) For any sequence of non-negative numbers a1,…,an, Interpretation:
• Think of a1, a2, …, an are the side lengths of a high-dimensional rectangle.
• Then the right hand side is the volume of this rectangle.
• The left hand side is the volume of the square with the same total side length.
• The inequality says that the volume of the square is always not smaller.
• e.g.Arithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean Inequality(AM-GM inequality) For any sequence of non-negative numbers a1,…,an, Exercise: What is an upper bound on?
• Set a1=n and a2=…=an=1, then the upper bound is 2 – 1/n.
• Set a1=a2=√n and a3=…=an=1, then the upper bound is 1 + 2/√n – 2/n.
• Set a1=…=alogn=2 and ai=1 otherwise, then the upper bound is 1 + log(n)/n
• Good Book
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