Documents

15 views

American Literature

American literature  Beginnings in 17th century – first English settlements in North America in the first three decades of the century (Jamestown,Virginia)  First written texts were not English only – French, Spanish and Dutch  Beginnings of AmLit commonly associated with Puritan colony of New England (Boston) which flourished in 1630s.  Populated by members of a group of English Protestants called Puritans.  Puritans felt that the English Reformation had not gone far enough, and that the C
of 3

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Next:

A

Share
Tags
Transcript
  American literature  Beginnings in 17th century – first English settlements in North America in thefirst three decades of the century (Jamestown,Virginia)  First written texts were not English only – French, Spanish and Dutch  Beginnings of AmLit commonly associated with Puritan colony of New England(Boston) which flourished in 1630s.  Populated by members of a group of English Protestants called Puritans.  Puritans felt that the English Reformation had not gone far enough, and that theChurch of England was tolerant of practices which they associated with theCatholic Church. They formed into and identified with various religious groupsadvocating greater purity of worship and doctrine.  Church should be free of luxury, elaborate rituals and rules – God can beworshipped everywhere – because he is omnipotent and omnipresent  Under Elizabeth I they were recognized as one of religious movements.  However, under the Stuarts, their position swiftly deteriorated. The Stuarts werecloser to the Catholic Church. Especially Charles I, who was married to a French princess and remained close to Roman Catholic France throughout his reign.  The Puritans opposed the supremacy of the monarch in the church, arguing thatthe only head of the church is Christ. The Stuarts, on the other hand, believed inthe Divine Right of Kings.  Large numbers of Puritans left England during the Stuart reign and settled in NewEngland.Colonial period  1620 – the Mayflower – about 100 of English Puritans (Pilgrim Fathers) landedin today’s Massachusetts.  A landmark event in American history  Later, Puritans established a college and a printing press in Boston  First wirings – colonial pamphlets and histories decribing the colonies to theEnglish - Capt. John Smith  Religious writings – describing Puritan beliefs  Cotton Mather – theologian and historianRevolutionary periodDuring the 18th century, writing shifted focus from the Puritanical ideals to the power of the human mind and rational thought. The belief that human and natural occurrenceswere messages from God no longer fit with the new human centered world. Manyintellectuals believed that the human mind could comprehend the universe through thelaws of physics as described by Isaac Newton. The enormous scientific, economic, social,and philosophical, changes of the 18th century, called the Enlightenment, impacted theauthority of clergyman and scripture, making way for democratic principles.   Late 18th century colonies moved towards the break with Britain - the AmericanWar of Independence  Political writings – Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence  Political independence influenced all aspects of society and led to creation of srcinal literary works in the US.   Nation’s first novels published at the turn of the 19th century – literacy rateincreasing  First female authors of novels, advocating the right of women to live as equals tomen – written in the Sentimentalist manner   Washington Irving – first author who made his living only by writing – uniqueAmerican style  Still heavily influenced by British lit movements  19th century – 1830s – Poe, Hawthorne, Melville – Dark Romanticism  Edgar Allan Poe – Gothic genre – best remembered for short stories, novellas and poetry (“The Fall of the House of Usher”, “The Pit and the Pendulum”, “TheRaven”, “Annabel Lee”) – enormous influence on the SF and FF genre  Herman Melville – adventure novels, focusing on human psychology and natureof evil –  Moby Dick   –influenced Conrad and Hemingway   Nathaniel Hawthorne – “romances , quasi-allegorical novels exploring suchthemes as guilt, pride, and emotional repression in his native New England. Hismasterpiece, The Scarlet Letter  , is the stark drama of a woman cast out of her community for committing adultery  Victorian influence – Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin  – the movementagainst slavery in the Confederate States (the American South) at the eve of theCivil War (1861-1865)  Realism – Mark Twain (1835-1910) - first famous American author not from theEast Coast (he was from Missouri). Twain's style – influenced by journalism,direct and unadorned but also highly evocative and irreverently humorous – changed the way Americans write their language. His characters speak like real people and sound distinctively American, using local dialects, newly inventedwords, and regional accents.   Novels: Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Life on the Mississipi  Realism - Henry James (1843–1916) confronted the Old World-New Worlddilemma by writing directly about it. Although born in New York City, he spentmost of his adult years in England. Many of his novels center on Americans wholive in or travel to Europe. Intricate, highly qualified sentences, investigatinghuman psychology, unreliable narrators, interior monologue – influence of modernism.Novel: The    Portrait of a Lady  – contrast between Europe andAmerica. Novellas : “Daisy Miller”, about an enchanting American girl inEurope, and “The Turn of the Screw”, an enigmatic ghost story.  XX century  In her stories and novels, Edith Wharton (1862–1937) scrutinized the upper-class,Eastern-seaboard society in which she had grown up. One of her finest books, The Age of Innocence , centers on a man who chooses to marry a conventional,socially acceptable woman rather than a fascinating outsider.  Post World War I - Modernism - “The Lost Generation” – disillusioned by theGreat War - Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald  The stories and novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896–1940) capture the restless, pleasure-hungry, defiant mood of the 1920s. Fitzgerald's characteristic theme,expressed in The Great Gatsby , is the tendency of youth's golden dreams todissolve in failure and disappointment. Fitzgerald also reflects the collapse of some key American Ideals, set out in the Declaration of Independence, such asliberty, social unity, good governance and peace, features which were severelythreatened by the pressures of modern early 20th century society.  Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961) saw violence and death first-hand as anambulance driver in World War I, and the carnage persuaded him that abstractlanguage was mostly empty and misleading. He cut out unnecessary words fromhis writing, simplified the sentence structure, and concentrated on concreteobjects and actions. He adhered to a moral code that emphasized grace under  pressure, and his protagonists were strong, silent men who often dealt awkwardlywith women. The Sun Also Rises and  A Farewell to Arms are generally consideredhis best novels; in 1953, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature.  Five years before Hemingway, another American novelist had won the NobelPrize: William Faulkner (1897–1962). Faulkner managed to encompass anenormous range of humanity in an invented Mississippian region. He used the stream of consciousness“ technique to record his characters’ seeminglydisconnected inner monologue. (In fact, these passages are carefully crafted, andtheir seemingly chaotic structure conceals multiple layers of meaning.) He alsoused discontinous time sequences to show how the past – especially the slave-holding era of the Deep South – endures in the present. Novel: The Sound and the Fury.  Post WW II- Harper Lee, Sallinger, Mailer, Nabokov, Updike, Roth  Postmodernism: Pynchon, Toni Morrison, McCarthy, DeLillo
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks