ADRESS FORMS AND POLITENESS. Second person- used when the subject of the verb in a sentence is the same as the individual to . whom the speaker is addressing him or herself.
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ADRESS FORMS AND POLITENESSSecond person- used when the subject of the verb in a sentence is the same as the individual to whom the speaker is addressing him or herself.Brown and Gilman(1972, discussed in Fasold 1990) proposed that the evolution of pronominal address forms reflects sociocultural change over timeAmerican English Address
  • FN- first name, used among friends or acquaintances
  • TLN- title plus last name, used to address those higher in rank or older
  • LN- last name, a less formal address used by superiors or coworkers to show either
  • TT- title plus title, used in very formal settings or with people of very high rank
  • =is basically one of sociolinguistic competence, which is the knowledge a speaker has of how to use the language varieties in his or her linguistic repertoire, and involves the following components:
  • Social- these are the aspects of the social domain
  • Place- the physical location of the interaction
  • 3. Context- the situational status, ranging from intimate to formal4. Person- age/kin/generation/sex/marital status5. Cognitive-whether the name of the addressee is known is a factor, as well as the familiarity the person has with the rules appropriate for a given socialContext6. Cultural-the identity set of titles available varies from culture to culture (and of course from language to language)Politeness and PragmaticsPragmatics- the use of context to make inference about meaning of a linguistic structureFormality- do not impose; remain aloofHesitancy- give the addressee his or her optionEquality- treat the addressee as equalCooperative principle
  • Maxim of Quantity- Make your contribution no less and no more informative than required by the purposes of the conversational exchange
  • Maxim of Quality- Make your contribution truthful
  • Maxim of relevance- Make your
  • contribution relevant to the conversation4.Maxim of Manner- Make your contribution perspicuous, by avoiding obscurity, ambiguity, prolixity and disorderliness Conversational implicature- The maxims allow for interpretation of an utterancethat goes beyond literal meaningThree expectations in conversational implicature that allow for interpretation once the speaker appears to have violated the maxim1. The speaker expects to be seen as cooperative. 2. The hearer expects that the violating speaker is being cooperative3. The speaker expects the hearer to assume cooperation and to interpret the violation on that basis.Five characteristics of conversational implicature
  • Everyone recognizes the cooperative principle
  • Literal comprehension of an utterance precedes the interpretation of the meaning
  • Implicatures vary depending on the assumptions of the speaker in question
  • Implicatures can be cancelled.Leechas Maxims:1.tact- minimize cost and maximize benefit to other2. generosity-minimize benefit and maximize cost to self3. approbation-minimize criticism and maximize praise of other4. modesty- minimize praise and maximize criticism of selfGoals are related to avoiding loss of face. Numerous acts are face-threatening:Negative face- territoriality, freedom of action and freedom from imposition;A request impedes on another’s freedomPositive face- positive self image, desire for approval; contraction by another calls into question one’s positive self image Speech Act
  • Is a technical term in linguistics and the philosophy of language
  • Refers to the act of successfully communicating an intended understanding to the listener
  • Some typical Speech Acts
  • Warning
  • Informing
  • Promising
  • Questioning
  • Answering
  • Greeting
  • Challenging
  • Classification illocutionary acts
  • Assertives= speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed propositon
  • Directives= speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action
  • Commisives= speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action
  • Expressives= speech acts that expresses on the speaker’s attitudes and emotions towards the proposition
  • Declarations=speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration
  • Analysis Using Searle’s Theory
  • Step 1: Understand the facts of the conversation.
  • Step 2: Assume cooperation and relevance on behalf of the participants
  • Step 3: Establish factual background information pertinent to the conversation.
  • Step 4: Make assumptions about the conversation based on steps 1-3
  • Step 5: If steps 1-4 do not yield a consequential meaning, then infer that there are two illocutionary forces at work
  • Step 6: Assume the hearer has the ability to perform the act the speaker
  • suggests.•Step 7: Make inferences from 1-6 regarding possible primary illocutions.•Step 8: Use background information to establish the primary illocution
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