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A Course Handout of Phonetics and Phonology of English, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3rd Y.E B.Ed. students, 1st semester 2014-2015, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

The course Phonetics & Phonology of English aims at developing the Yemeni students’ awareness of how Phonetics & Phonology of English in Yemen (especially in Tihamah of Yemen, Zabid city, Zabid College of Education, Hodeidah University) is
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  Phonetics & Phonology of English, handout, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd  Y-E B.Ed. Students, 1st semester 2014-2015, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University [0] IN THE NAME OF ALLAH Phonetics & Phonology of English (Phon. & Phono.) This course-material of Phonetics & Phonology of English (Phon. & Phono.), includes further readings, research papers and references related to the subject and available in the library and your pen-drives. (It is For Private Circulation Only) 3 rd -Year-B.Ed.-English, 1 st  Semester 2014-2015, Department of English, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University Wednesdays, 11:00 a.m.  –   02:00 p.m., Hall  –   9 Lecturer: Dr. Abdullah Shaghi  Phonetics & Phonology of English, handout, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd  Y-E B.Ed. Students, 1st semester 2014-2015, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University [1] In the Name of Allah Phonetics & Phonology of English (Phon. & Phono.) A Course Handout For 3rd-Year-English-B.Ed. Students, 1 st  semester 2014-2015, Department of English, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University Lecturer: Dr. Abdullah Shaghi 1.   Introduction The course Phonetics & Phonology of English  aims at developing the Yemeni students‘ awareness of how Phonetics & Phonology of English in Yemen (especially in Tihamah of Yemen, Zabid city, Zabid College of Education, Hodeidah University) is structured and studied. The Yemeni students will study some important terms and facts about Phonetics in general and Phonology of English (and Arabic) in particular. In your 1 st  and 2 nd  years, you studied Spoken English 1, 2, 3, and 4  where you learnt some conversations with listening and speaking skills and with practice of English sounds, syllables and connected speech, stresses and intonations, respectively. Last year, you studied the course ‘Introduction to Language 1’ , where   you learnt some introductory aspects of the sounds of English as well as Arabic and their patterns (i.e. phonetics and phonology) as well as some differences  between English and Arabic in Phonetics and Phonology. This year, in your 1 st  semester 2014-2015 , you‘re  going to study and learn ‘Phonetics and Phonology of English’  in more details. That is to say you‘re going to study and learn the speech organs, the structure of sounds/phonemes, the phonological processes, syllables, stress and intonation (in English in the first place and Arabic in the second place). The study of the structure of words/morphemes, phrases, and sentences (in English in the first place and Arabic in the second place), by Allah willing/if Allah wills, will be studied in the course ‘ Morphology & Syntax ’ , in the 2 nd semester 2014-2015.  Phonetics & Phonology of English, handout, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd  Y-E B.Ed. Students, 1st semester 2014-2015, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University [2] 1.1.   Course Description This course introduces students reading English as Foreign Language to  production and description of English sounds and the phonological processes that these sounds go through in company of each other. The course involves theoretical  and practical  speech guidance and practice to help students learn and acquire a high degree of ability and knowledge in / of Speech Mechanism and correct pronunciation and (IPA) transcription of English  sounds, syllables, stresses and intonation. For the sake of correlation or non-correlation, some similar or dissimilar ideas, where necessary / needed of Phonetics & Phonology of Arabic  will also be taken into consideration in your study. 1.2.   Course Outline 1. Introduction 1.1. Course Description 1.2. Course Outline 1.3. Key Linguistic Terms and Concepts 1.4. Assessment 1.5. Who am I? 2. Phonetics and Phonology 2.1. Phonetics 2.1.1. Phones and Phonetics 2.1.2. International Phonetics Alphabet (IPA) 2.1.2.1. IPA Symbols for the Sounds of English 2.2. Phonology 3. Phonetics and Phonology of English 3.1. Speech Mechanism 3.1.1. The Vocal Tract and Speech Organs and Articulators 3.1.2. Air Stream Mechanism 3.1.3. Speech Chain 3.1.4. States of the Glottis 3.2. Phonetics of English 3.2.1. English Sounds 3.2.1.1. Description of English Vowels 3.2.1.2. Description of English Consonants 3.3. Phonology of English 3.3.1. (Segmental) Phonology 3.3.1.1. Phones, Phonemes and Allophones 3.3.1.2. Phonological Changes and Rules 3.3.2. (Supra-segmental) Phonology 3.2.2.1. Syllables 3.3.2.2. Prosodic Features (Prosody)  Phonetics & Phonology of English, handout, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd  Y-E B.Ed. Students, 1st semester 2014-2015, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University [3] 4. Phonetics & Phonology of Arabic (Brief Introduction) 4.1. Phonetics of Arabic 4.2. Phonology of Arabic 5. Transcription 5.1. Narrow vs. Broad Transcription 1.3.   Key Linguistic Terms and Concepts The Key Linguistic Terms and Concepts for the Phonetics and Phonology of (English) are as follows:    Phonetics : articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, consonants, vowels, glides, nasal sounds, oral sounds, voiced consonants, voiceless consonants, voiceless vowels, stops, fricatives, affricates, labial, bilabial, dental, alveolar, alveo-dental, palatal, uvular, glottal, ingressive, egressive, velar, velarized consonants, palatalized consonants, aspirated consonants, front vowels, back vowels, high vowels, low vowels, mid-vowels, semi-vowels, round vowels, syllabic consonant.    Phonology : segmental phonology, supra-segmental phonology,  phonemes, phones, allophones, phonological changes and rules, vowel coalescence, vowel addition, vowel deletion, default vowel, vowel shortening, vowel lengthening, epenthesis, umlaut, homorganic nasal, nasalization, consonant deletion, consonant addition, distribution, complementary distribution, free variation, assimilations, dissimilations, insertions, minimal pairs, syllable, open syllable, closed syllable,  prosodic features, stress, tempo, intonation, rhythm . 1.4.   Assessment    Class Presentation/Continuous Assessment/mid-term exam: 45% of final mark.    End of Semester Examination: 105% of final mark. 1.5.   Who am I? To learn more about me, search my name ―shaghi, / abdullahshaghi / drabdullahshaghi / abdullah.shaghi / abulbaraa shaghi‖ on my website (where you can download all the lectures and models of final examinations): http://abdullahshaghi2012.wordpress.com/ as well as on my gmail / google drive / google blogger, LinkedIn.com, academia.com, scribd.com, or archive.org.  Phonetics & Phonology of English, handout, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd  Y-E B.Ed. Students, 1st semester 2014-2015, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University [4] 2.   Phonetics and Phonology Phonetics and Phonology  are the two primary linguistic disciplines concerned with speech sounds - those sounds that are used by humans to communicate. Phonetics and phonology both study language sound; both areas are mutually dependent. Phonetics  describes the concrete, physical  form of sounds  (how they are produced, heard and how they can be described), while phonology  is concerned with the  function of sounds , that is with their status and inventory in any given language. In other words, phonetics studies the actual sounds that we  produce while phonology studies the abstract patterns of the sounds in our mind. To fulfill the aim of this course handout, which is to provide an outline of the sounds of various English sounds and how those sounds combine and pattern together, we will need aspects of both Phonetics and Phonology. 2.1.   Phonetics Phonetics is a scientific description of what speech sounds exist in a language. It represents how they are produced and perceived and what acoustic properties they have. Thus, it can be put in the class of natural sciences. Phonetics essentially seeks to trace the processes physiologically involved in sound  production. It examines how symbolic sound is manifested as a continuous  physical object. It describes the ways the sounds are produced and the points at which they are articulated. Phonetics provides objective ways of describing and analyzing the range of sounds humans use in their languages. More specifically, articulatory   phonetics  identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in  producing the different sounds of the world‘s languages. Those sounds are then transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on the physics of speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves, and the effect those waves have on a hearer‘s ears and brain. It follows that phonetics has strong associations with anatomy,  physiology, physics and neurology. Phonetics is used by all sorts of people. It is used in at least two of the  professions allied to medicine, speech therapy and audiology. In education,  phonetics is not just a subject of study in its own right, but it is also an important tool in language teaching and learning (English as well as any other modern languages), drama studies, singing and so on; it even features in many
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