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A contribution to the implementation of ICZM in the Mediterranean developing countries

A contribution to the implementation of ICZM in the Mediterranean developing countries
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  A contribution to the implementation of ICZM in the Mediterraneandeveloping countries Pino Gonza´lez-Riancho * , Marcello Sano`, Rau´l Medina, Oscar Garcı´a-Aguilar, Jurgi Areizaga Environmental Hydraulics Institute ‘‘IH Cantabria’’, Universidad de Cantabria Avda. de Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Available online 12 August 2009 a b s t r a c t The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Manage-ment (ICZM) principles in the Mediterranean developing countries at the moment of signing the protocolon ICZM for the Mediterranean, in the framework of the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan of the Bar-celona Convention. This assessment is based on the results of two advanced seminars on ICZM promotedby the Azahar programme of the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for the Development(Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation). The contribution of the participants of theseminar, who are representatives of national agencies related with ICZM in different Mediterraneancountries, have been collected through a questionnaire including: (i) a rankingof the main coastal sectorsand the main coastal issues of each country; (ii) significant initiatives for the sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zones; and (iii) the evaluation of the ICZM progress. The state of the coast, thelevel of implementation of ICZM and the main problems faced to apply it, have been detected for eachcountry. None of the consulted countries have a full implemented integrated coastal zone management,the major problems being: (i) the lack of financial commitment for the implementation of ICZM; (ii) thelack of an assessment and monitoring system; (iii) the lack of knowledge regarding the coastal system;(iv) the lack of qualified human resources; and (v) the lack of public participation and administrativeintegration strategies based on information. From these conclusions, some recommendations to improveICZM are also provided. The work presented in this paper is the starting point to assess the evolution andthe reference from which ICZM will be improved through the protocol on ICZM for the Mediterranean.   2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in theMediterranean,withintheframeworkoftheBarcelonaConvention,was signed at the Conference of the Plenipotentiaries on the ICZMProtocolthattookplaceon20–21January2008inMadrid.FourteenContracting Parties of the Barcelona Convention signed theProtocol: Algeria, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Malta,Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Slovenia, Spain, Syria and Tunisia.All other Parties announced to do so in the very near future [1].Thispaperaimstoassessboththestateofthecoastandthelevelof ICZM implementation in the developing Mediterraneancountries at the time of signing the ICZM Protocol, being bothassessments based on the contributions of several coastalmanagement representatives from different Mediterranean devel-opingcountries.Theassessmentof thestateofthecoastisbasedonthe methodology applied by Spain [2] to carry out the Stocktakingof Actors, Laws and Institutions proposed by the Recommendation2002/413/ECconcerningtheimplementationofICZMinEurope[3].The assessment of the level of ICZM implementation has beencarried out through an indicator set to measure the progress inintegrated coastal zone management in Europe, proposed byPickaver et al. [4] (from now on ICZM Progress Indicator). Theapplication of the ICZM Progress Indicator to the Mediterraneandeveloping countries is a useful contribution to the knowledge of the current situation of ICZM in the Maghreb, the Middle East andSouth-Eastern Europe, providing the possibility to compare theresults obtained for this region with what was obtained for theEuropean countries by Pickaver et al.The data collection to carry out this work has been possiblethrough the participation of these Mediterranean coastal managersin two advanced seminars of the Azahar Programme promoted bythe Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Develop-ment (AECID) and organized by the University of Cantabriabetween 2005 and 2007. Azahar programme focuses on threemajorMediterraneansubregions,theMaghreb,theMiddleEastandSouth-Eastern Europe, being the countries involved in theseseminars Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania (included in Azahar *  Corresponding author. Tel.:  þ 34 942 201810; fax:  þ 34 942 201860. E-mail address: (P. Gonza´lez-Riancho). Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Ocean & Coastal Management journal homepage: 0964-5691/$ – see front matter    2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.08.007 Ocean & Coastal Management 52 (2009) 545–558  programme even if it is not a Mediterranean country), Egypt, Pal-estinian Territories, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Bosnia-Herzegovina,Montenegro (formerly Serbia-Montenegro till the independence of this last one in 2006) and Albania. As a result, 44 participants from12 Mediterranean developing countries attended these two Azaharseminars. The seminars are oriented to technical coastal expertsand managers representatives from the different administrations(see Table 1) of the Azahar Mediterranean countries. The attendeesmust have a level of education equivalent to a major technicaldegree related to engineering, oceanography or geology, or elsethey must be coordinating coastline management teams incorpo-rating personnel with the aforesaid qualifications.Their contributions were collected through a questionnairebased on the work carried out in Spain in order to meet theRecommendation 2002/413/EC concerning the implementation of ICZM in Europe, which encourages the European countries todevelop a stocktaking of the actors, laws and institutions involvedin coastal management, including the analysis of the main coastalissues through the perceived diagnosis of the stakeholders, and todevelop a national strategy on ICZM according to the results of thestocktaking. The contributions of the Seminar participants areanalyzed and presented in the following chapters. 2. ICZM in the Mediterranean region TheMediterranean isaperfect illustrationof theglobalproblemofsustainabledevelopment.Itisacomplexregionthatgathersmanydifferent ecosystems and landscapes characterized by a very highlevel of biodiversity. It is the crossroad between three continents,Asia, Africa and Europe, with very different cultural backgrounds,forms of governments and levels of development. The humanpopulation of the Mediterranean is distributed along the coast andconcentratedincoastalcities,andthistrendisincreasing.Itisoneof the most important tourism destinations worldwide and it hasastrategicimportanceforthetransportationofgoodsandforenergysupply. Finally, the development of many different civilizationsalong its coast has left an important cultural heritage that needsspecial attention for its conservation [5]. The socio-cultural,economicand territorialdisparities,the persistence ofconflicts andthe increases in pressure on the environment, prove that theMediterranean region is not achieving a sustainable development.There is a need, both at the national level of each state and at theMediterraneanregionallevel,foracoordinatedandintegratedeffortof the different coastal stakeholders – public administrations,international organisms, companies, coastal experts, NGOs and thecivil society – to achieve a sustainable development of our coastalareas,especiallyconcerningtourismdevelopment.ICZMisachanceandachallengefortheMediterraneancountriestoreachabalancedandsustainablemanagementofthecoastalsystemanditsresources.Nowadays, it is widely known that the implementation of ICZMis a medium-term, complex, multidisciplinary and iterativeprocess, which needs to be gradually established, adapted andimproved. This process includes several steps; from the momentin which a coastal management process begins to the point whenthe ICZM is completely and successfully established. It is usuallyrepresented by the ICZM policy cycle (Fig. 1) which slightly variesbetween authors but always has the basic idea of the initiation–planning–implementation–evaluation steps. Each cycle could beconsidered as an ICZM program in itself and is limited by thegeographic area covered and by the number of stakeholders andeconomic sectors involved. Once one ICZM program is successfullyaccomplished, it can become wider in scope [6].Almost 40 years after the first launch of ICZM principles in USA(Coastal Zone Management Act, 1972), Europe and the Mediter-ranean region seem to have a real intention and the opportunityto include these principles into their legal–administrative systemand are finally establishing a legal instrument to implement them.In 1975, 16 Mediterranean countries and the European Commu-nity adopted the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) [8], the first-ever Regional Seas Programme under UNEP’s umbrella. In 1976these Contracting Parties adopted the Convention for theProtection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (BarcelonaConvention) [9]. Today, more than 30 years later, the BarcelonaConvention and MAP are more active than ever, being nowadays22 Contracting Parties. Seven protocols addressing specific aspectsof Mediterranean environmental conservation complete the MAP  Table 1 Institutions attending to the seminars on ICZM.Country InstitutionAlbania Ministry of Spatial Planning and Tourism. TechnicalSecretariat of Water National CouncilMinistry of Environment, Forest and Water ManagementAlgeria Ministry of Land Management and EnvironmentMinistry of High Education and Scientific ResearchBosnia-HerzegovinaMinistry of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Agriculturein Herzegovinian-Neretvan Canton Managementfor Water SectorAdriatic Sea Hydrographic Area. Water SectorEgypt Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation.Coastal Research InstituteMinistry of Water Resources and Irrigation.Shore Protection AuthorityMinistry of State for Environmental Affairs. EgyptianEnvironmental Affairs AgencyGovernorate of Matruh. Physical Planning Department Jordan Ministry of EnvironmentLebanon Ministry of Public Works and TransportMinistry of Interior and Municipalities Municipalityof DamourMorocco Ministry of Land Management, Water and EnvironmentAgency of Loukkos Te´touan Hydraulic Basin.Water Resources Planning DepartmentMinistry of Agriculture, Rural Development andMaritime FishingMauritania Ministry of Rural DevelopmentMinistry of Environment. Service of scientific coordinationfor the direction of protected areas and the littoralPalestinianTerritoriesEnvironment Quality AuthorityMinistry of Public Works and Housing. Researchand Studies DepartmentEnvironmental Quality Authority and Gaza Strip.Marine and Coastal DepartmentAl-Quds University. Faculty of Science and Technology.Department of Applied Environmental and Earth StudiesSyria State Planning CommissionTunisia Agency for Littoral Protection and Management (APAL)University of Sfax. School of Science Fig. 1.  ICZM policy cycle. Adapted from Sano` et al. [7]. P. Gonza´lez-Riancho et al. / Ocean & Coastal Management 52 (2009) 545–558 546  legal framework; the last one, concerning ICZM, is the objective of this paper.The Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management,supported by two previous European initiatives on ICZM, theEuropean Demonstration Programme on ICZM (1996–1999) andthe European Recommendation for ICZM implementation (2002),was adopted in Madrid on January 2008. This is the seventhprotocol coming to complete the set of legal instruments of theConvention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and theCoastal Region of the Mediterranean and its protocols (BarcelonaConvention). This protocol is the response tothe need for a bindinglegal instrument for the Mediterranean region. Fourteen Con-tracting Parties of the Barcelona Convention signed the protocol atthe concluding session of the Plenipotentiaries Conference, theseare the following: Algeria, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy,Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Slovenia, Spain, Syria andTunisia. The protocol is now open for signature by all ContractingParties from 21st January 2008 to 20th January 2009.This paper aims to analyze the status of the Mediterraneandeveloping countries on the implementation of ICZM principles atthe moment of signing the Protocol on ICZM. This analysis is anopportunity to start the continuous and periodic monitoring of theprogress on ICZM that each country or region should develop inorder to conduct an adaptive, iterative and learning-based process,as suggested in the definition of ICZM.To understand the relation between the MAP, the Barcelonaconvention and the Azahar priority countries attending to thementioned advanced seminars and whose contributions will bepresented in this paper, the following figures (Figs. 2 and 3) arepresented.Thelefthandsideshowsthecountries,whichsignedtheBarcelona Convention and on the right hand side those countrieswhich are considered Azahar priority countries. The Azaharcountries are the non-European and developing Mediterraneancountries except Libya, Israel, Turkey and Croatia either for theirdevelopment status or for political reasons. Mauritania is alsoincluded although it does not belong to the Mediterranean region.All the Azahar countries adopted the Mediterranean Action Planand the Barcelona Convention, except Mauritania and Jordan.Although neither one of them belong to the Mediterranean Basinnor have they signed the Protocol on ICZM, Mauritania and Jordanwill be included in the analysis due to the interest of the informa-tiongiven.Itisnecessarytomentionthat,althoughitwasincluded,no representative from Montenegro attended the seminars. 3. Methodology  TheassessmentaloneoftheICZMprogressinacountrydoesnotgive a precise idea about the achievement of a sustainable coastaldevelopment, making it necessary to determine the consequentimprovement on the state of the coast. The Indicators and DataWorking Group (WG-ID) of the European ICZM Expert Groupproposed, in 2003, using two sets of indicators: (i) an indicator setto measure the progress of implementation of ICZM (ProgressIndicator); and (ii) a core set of 27 indicators, made up of 44measurements, to assess sustainable development of the coastalzone (sustainability indicators) in Europe [10].This chapter presents the methodology used to collect andanalyze the information regarding the state of the coast and theprogress on ICZM in the Mediterranean developing countriesobtained from the attendees to the Advanced Seminars. TheProgress Indicator applied is the one used by the WG-ID in Europe,proposed by Pickaver et al. On the other hand, the data source of this work made necessary the application of another, more userfriendly, sustainability indicator, which represents a subjectiveassessment of the state of the coast and would complement thework carried out by the WG-ID.The methodology applied is based on a specific questionnairefilled out by the participants of the Azaharadvanced seminars. Thisquestionnaireisorganizedinthreeparts,thefirstpartgathersbasicinformation about the person who fills the questionnaire, thesecond part collects information about the state of the coast andconsists of open questions and rankings, and the third part is aboutthe progress of ICZM and consists of Yes/No questions, as in theICZM Progress Indicator.  3.1. State of the coast  To analyze the state of the coast of the different countries, theattendees were asked to fill in some open questions concerning:(i) the national agencies and ministries with responsibilities onthe coastal zone; (ii) the laws affecting the coastal zone; (iii) thenumber of research centers and universities which work oncoastal issues; (iv) the percentage of the budget for coastalmanagement and coastal protection; (v) the percentage of areaprotected for nature, landscape and heritage conservation; (vi) thenumber of endangered coastal species; (vii) the percentageof built-up area by 5 km from the coastline; (viii) the percentage of  Fig. 2.  Barcelona Convention countries. Fig. 3.  Azahar Programme countries. P. Gonza´lez-Riancho et al. / Ocean & Coastal Management 52 (2009) 545–558  547  protected and defended coastline; and (ix) the percentage of second and holiday homes. Furthermore, the participants wereasked to fill in two questions, one ranking concerning theimportance of some economic sectors and the other the coastalproblems. These two ranking questions are analyzed andexplained in the following lines.Theattendeeswereaskedtorankseveraleconomicsectorsfromthe most important (1) to the less important (8) according to theirinfluence on the economy, pressure on coastal environment andsocialawarenessofcoastalcommunities.Thistaskhadbeencarriedout using Table 2. The sectors used are selected from the Recom-mendation 2002/413/EC on ICZM.Tocompletethisinformationwiththeperceiveddiagnosisofthestate of the coast, the attendees were also asked to rank differentcoastal problems in their country from the most (1) to the leastimportant (11) through Table 3.Through these two tables an overview of the state of the coastalsystemisprovided.Thisjointrankingconstitutesausefulsustainabledevelopmentindicatorasitreflectstheimportanceofeacheconomicsector for the economic (economic relevance), environmental(coastalpressure)andsocial(socialawareness)systems,establishinga relationship between these three coastal systems. It also shows,withinaDPSIRframework,therelationbetweenthe‘‘drivingforces’’(economic sectors), exerting a ‘‘pressure’’ on the environment, the‘‘impacts’’ suffered by the coast which represents the ‘‘state’’ of thecoast (coastal problems) and the ‘‘response’’ of the society (socialawareness). It is a useful tool to understand the current state of thecoastalzoneandtheinterrelationbetweenthethreecoastalsystemsthrough the collection of very little information. However, it isadvisabletoconductthisanalysiswithregularrecurrenceinordertounderstand the coastal trends and the evolution followed by eachsector as a response to population growth.  3.2. Progress in ICZM  After analyzing the work carried out by several authors, such asEhler (2003) [11], Olsen (2003) [12], Pickaver et al. (2004) or UNESCO-IOC Manuals and Guides (2006) [13], to measure the levelof implementation of ICZM, the conclusion was that to do this, it isnecessary to collect very specific information that may not beaccessible to everyone, only to institutions directly involved inICZM. The work presented in this paper has been carried outthrough questionnaires filled out by people of different back-groundsandprofessionalprofiles(coastalinstitutionsandagencies,sectoral ministries with competences on coastal areas, coastalresearchers, etc.) as well from different countries and cultures. Theproper collection, processing and analysis of the informationrequire the use of simple indicators based on representativequestions as well as simple answers. For this reason, the indicatorselectedtoanalyzetheresultsoftheworkpresentedinthispaperisthe ICZM Progress Indicator proposed by Pickaver et al. (2004) tomeasure the progress in the implementation of ICZM in Europe(ICZM Progress Indicator).To apply the ICZM Progress Indicator to the Azahar Mediter-ranean developing countries and estimate the level of imple-mentation of ICZM in each participating country, the attendeeswere asked to fill in 26 yes/no questions concerning the coastalmanagement applied (decision making, planning, funding,instruments, reports, plans, strategies, administrative support,public information and participation, conflict resolution, moni-toring, etc.). All these questions can be grouped into five phases of gradual ICZM implementation. This structure of questions andphases is shown in Table 4. The positive/negative answers of theparticipants to each of these questions shows the exact level atwhich coastal management is and how far it is from a fullimplementation of ICZM.Pickaver et al. applied this indicator in Europe consideringeach action in two time periods to identify a trend through time,and in three spatial levels (national, regional and local) [4].However, the work presented here considers each action only atthe national level, due to the sociopolitical situation of theattending countries, and takes into account the time at which thequestions were answered (2007) to provide preliminary infor-mation when signing the protocol as the starting point fora continuous assessment. 4. Results The answers of the participants to the Azahar advancedseminars have been combined, compared, validated, filtered andstatistically treated.It is important to note that the information collected can beconsidered as especially representative due to the professionalbackground of the seminars’ attendees participating in the survey.Information coming from coastal professionals working in institu-tions with major responsibilities in the coastal space provides veryvaluable insight for current coastal management issues. Thisinformation is usually very difficult to gather, and highlights theunique opportunity offered by this training course in reaching thisspecific audience.The results obtained from this combination of answers arepresentedinthissection.Thefirstchapterfocusesontheanalysisof the state of the coast and the second one is referred to the progressof ICZM in the Azahar Mediterranean developing countries. 4.1. Analysis of the state of the coast  To frame the results obtained from the analysis of the state of the coast and to have a preliminary global vision of the character-istics of the Mediterranean region, Table 5 compares the coastline  Table 2 Table to collect information about the importance of economic sectors.Sector EconomicrelevanceCoastalpressureSocialawarenessI. Fishingand aquacultureII. TransportIII. EnergyIV. Protection of speciesand habitatsV. Cultural heritageVI. Tourism andrecreationVII. Industry and miningVIII. Agriculture  Table 3 Table to collect information about coastal problems.Coastal problem RankFish stock diminishingWater chemical contaminationHistorical heritage degradationUnemploymentCoastal erosionCoastal urbanizationSewage dischargesEutrophicationLoss of coastal habitatsLack of coastal knowledgeUnclear institutional responsibilities definition P. Gonza´lez-Riancho et al. / Ocean & Coastal Management 52 (2009) 545–558 548  length, the population densities, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)and the Human Development Index (HDI) of the differentcountries.From this table it is possible to conclude that there is a higherpopulation density in coastal areas, with a consequent increase inthenumberofeconomicactivities,urbanizedareas,solidwasteandwastewater discharges, conflicts for the existing resources andconflicts of competences between the different administrations.This situation justifies the need for an integrated approach incoastal management to connect and coordinate all the sectoraleconomic activities and objectives, all the coastal stakeholders andthe sectoral administrations and policies at the national, regionaland local level. 4.1.1. Economic sectors Focusing again on the questionnaire and on the question of theeconomic sectors, the results obtained for the whole Mediterra-nean region are shown in Chart 1. The importance of each sectoraccording to their influence on the economy of the country(economic system), pressure on the coastal environment (physical-ecological system) and on the social awareness (social system) ispresented in this chart.The most important sectors in the economy of the Mediterra-nean developing region are tourism and recreation, industry andmining, agriculture and fishing and aquaculture, being the first twoalso important in terms of pressure on the environment togetherwith transport, and followed by fishing and aquaculture andenergy. Concerning the social awareness, almost all the sectorshave a social importance the most important being the protectionof species and habitats, fishing and aquaculture and agriculture,and the less important industry and mining.In this chart we must take notice of the social awareness inindustry and mining, which is the lowest despite the fact that itexerts the highest pressure on the coastal environment. This couldbe explained based on its insufficient presence in these developingcountries.Ontheoppositehandtherearetwosectors(protectionof species and habitats and historical heritage), which present one of the highest social awareness although their contribution to theireconomy is located among the lowest values. These aspects areimportant because they indicate that these countries are veryconsciousabouttherichnessoftheirculturalandnaturalresources,anyway it should be studied the national policies implemented inorder to protect them and to promote their rational use andsustainable exploitation.It is also possible to compare, for each specific country, thesectoral influence on the economy, the pressure on coastalenvironment and the social awareness. For example, Chart 2 showsthe importance of the different sectors in Algeria: the mostimportant sectors in terms of economy are industry and mining,energyand transport, the first two also being important in terms of environmental pressure, together with agriculture. The sectorswith the most influence on the social awareness are protection of species and habitats, historical heritage, tourism and agriculture.Note that the most important sector in terms of pressure, industryand mining, has almost no social awareness associated.  Table 4 Distribution of activities and phases for the assessment of the progress on ICZM(adapted from Pickaver et al. [2]). Phase I. Non-integrated coastal management is taking place a. Coastal management aspects are taking place in your country.b. Decisions about planning and management on the coast are governedby general legal instruments.c. Aspects of the coastal zone, including marine areas, are regularly androutinely monitored.d. Planning on the coast includes the provision, where appropriate,for the protection of natural areas.e. Funding is generally available for the implementation of coastalmanagement plans. Phase II. A framework for ICZM exists f. Existing instruments are being adapted and combined to deal withplanning and management issues on the coast.g. Ad hoc ICZM demonstration projects are being carried out that containrecognizable elements of ICZM.h. A formal ‘‘state of the coast’’ report has been written with the intentionto repeat the exercise every 5 or 10 years.i. A coastal management plan, embracing a long-term perspective,has been developed, with relevant issues and an implementationstrategy drawn up and adopted. j. An ICZM strategy (including the marine environment) has been producedwhich takes into account both the interdependence and disparity of natural processes and human activities.k. A sustainable development strategy is in place which includes theprecautionary principle and an ecosystems approach, and whichtreats coastal areas as distinct and separate areas. Phase III. Vertical and horizontal integration exists l. All relevant parties concerned in the ICZM decision making process havebeen identified and involved.m. Sufficient human resources, with a specific responsibility for ICZM, areplaced at each administrative level from national government to coastalmunicipality.n. An adequate flow of relevant ICZM information from the national to thelocal authority, and back again, is reaching the most appropriatepeople at each administrative level.o. There is sufficient support and involvement of the relevant administrativebodies, nationally, regionally, and locally, to allow and improve coordination.p. Examples of best ICZM practice are available and being used for specificsolutions, and flexible measures, to ensure the diversity of theMediterranean coasts.q. Scientific and technical information is being made available in anunderstandable form to lay people without losing coherence and validity.r. Adequate mechanisms are in place to allow the general public to takea participative and inclusive (as opposed to a consultative)role in ICZM decisions.s. Routine (rather than occasional) cooperation across local, regional, ornational boundaries is occurring.t. An efficient means to resolve conflicts between stakeholders is in place.u. A comprehensive set of indicators is being used to assess whether ornot the coast is moving towards a more sustainable situation. Phase IV. An efficient, participatory, integrative planning exists v.Along-termfinancialcommitmentisinplacefortheimplementationofICZM.w. An assessment of progress towards meeting sustainability goals is beingmade continuously.x. Monitoring on the coastal zone sees a positive trend towards greatersustainability of coastal resources, an improvement in the stateof the coast and in coastal habitats and biodiversity. Phase V. There is a full implementation of ICZM  y. All of the above actions have been implemented with problems areasgiven special attention.z. Re-evaluation of progress in implementing ICZM begins again automatically.  Table 5 General vision of the Mediterranean countries.Country Coastlinelength [5](km)Population density [5](inhabitants/km 2 )GDP [14](millions of USD)HDI[15]Country CoastalregionsAlbania 418 108 152 9145 0.801Algeria 1200 13 261 113,888 0.733Bosnia-Herzegovina23 78 51 11,396 0.803Egypt 955* 66 200 107,375 0.708 Jordan 27 64 229 14,101 0.773Lebanon 225 307 594 22,722 0.772Mauritania 754 3 – 2713 0.550Morocco 512* 40 159 65,405 0.646PalestinianTerritories55 523 3083 – 0.731Tunisia 1298 59 148 30,837 0.766Syria 183 86 366 34,919 0.724* only the Mediterranean coast considered. P. Gonza´lez-Riancho et al. / Ocean & Coastal Management 52 (2009) 545–558  549
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